The Penumbra system for mechanical thrombectomy in endovascular acute ischemic stroke therapy
ABSTRACT Efficacy of IV systemic thrombolysis is limited in patients with severe acute ischemic stroke and large-vessel occlusion. Mechanical thrombectomy has been the mainstay therapy in large-vessel occlusion. This review focuses on the Penumbra aspiration device.
The Penumbra prospective studies were reviewed and results are presented. The pivotal single-arm prospective trial that led to its approval by the US Food and Drug Administration enrolled 125 patients within 8 hours of symptom onset and demonstrated an 82% recanalization rate, to Thrombolysis in Myocardial Ischemia (TIMI) scores of 2 and 3. The risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 10%, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≤2 was 25%. In the postmarketing registry, 157 vessels were treated, with 87% achieving TIMI 2 and 3 recanalization and 41% having an mRS score of ≤2.
The Penumbra aspiration system is an effective tool to safely revascularize large-vessel occlusions in patients within 8 hours of onset of acute ischemic stroke who are either refractory to or excluded from IV thrombolytic therapy. Further prospective, randomized controlled trials will be needed to address whether this ability translates into neurologic improvement and better functional outcomes for our patients.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acute cervical carotid artery occlusion presents with a severe neurological deficit and is associated with unfavorable outcomes. In this study, the authors report their experience with patients having had acute ischemic stroke due to cervical carotid occlusion, who underwent endovascular intervention. METHOD: Sixteen acute cervical carotid occlusion patients (15 males and 1 female; mean age 67.7 years) were treated by endovascularly between January 2009 and November 2012. Clinical, procedural, and angiographic data were retrospectively evaluated. Successful intracranial recanalization was based on thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score of 2B-3. A favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days. FINDINGS: The average score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale before treatment was 15.9. Ten of 16 patients (63 %) were associated with intracranial tandem occlusion. Ten (63 %) cases were caused by atherosclerotic, 4 (25 %) by atrial fibrillation (AF), and 2 (13 %) by dissection. Thirteen of 16 (81 %) achieved successful cervical recanalization and 7 of 16 (44 %) patients obtained sufficient cervical and intracranial perfusion. As a result, 5 of 16 (31 %) patients demonstrated favorable outcomes. Five of seven patients (71 %) with successful cervical and intracranial recanalization presented favorable outcomes. In contrast, none of the patients without cervical or intracranial recanalization presented favorable outcomes. Three of 6 (50 %) patients initially without intracranial occlusion showed favorable outcomes, but only 2 of 10 (20 %) patients associated with intracranial occlusion had favorable outcomes. On the aspect of etiology, in atherosclerotic cases, 4 of 10 (40 %) showed favorable outcomes. However, all four AF cases deteriorated into poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility of endovascular intervention for acute cervical carotid artery occlusion. Although treatment for tandem occlusion and AF cases is an issue that should be resolved, intervention must be encouraged. Successful cervical and intracranial revascularization will be essential for favorable outcomes.Acta Neurochirurgica 04/2013; 155(6). DOI:10.1007/s00701-013-1697-x · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute ischemic stroke resulting from intracranial vessel occlusion is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The mainstays of therapy are fibrinolytics and mechanical thrombectomy in properly selected patients. A new Food and Drug Administration-approved technology to perform thrombectomy, retrievable stenting, may provide superior revascularization rates and improved patient outcomes. We analyzed the cumulative human experience reported for the Trevo Pro Retrieval System (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) and the Solitaire FR Revascularization Device (ev3, Irvine, CA, USA) as the definitive treatment for acute ischemic stroke. A literature search was undertaken to identify studies using the retrievable stents published up to September 2012. Nineteen studies identified a total of 576 patients treated with either the Trevo (n=221) or Solitaire (n=355) devices. Pooled data analysis identified median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores of 18.5±0.289 (standard error of the mean) and 17.9±0.610, and time to recanalization of 53.9±23.6minutes and 59.0±8.0minutes for the Trevo and Solitaire groups, respectively. Recanalization was variably defined by individual studies, most commonly achieving at least a thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score of 2a-3 or a thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score of 2-3. Revascularization (83%, 82%), mortality (31%, 14%), hemorrhage (8%, 6%), device complications (5%, 6%), and good patient outcomes (51%, 47%) were found with the Trevo and Solitaire devices, respectively. Preliminary analysis reveals excellent clinical outcomes for retrievable stent technology. This may be attributable to both high rates of revascularization with a relatively short time to perfusion restoration.Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 08/2013; 20(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2013.03.015 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite ongoing advances in stroke imaging and treatment, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke continue to debilitate patients with devastating outcomes at both the personal and societal levels. While the ultimate goal of therapy in ischemic stroke is geared towards restoration of blood flow, even when mitigation of initial tissue hypoxia is successful, exacerbation of tissue injury may occur in the form of cell death, or alternatively, hemorrhagic transformation of reperfused tissue. Animal models have extensively demonstrated the concept of reperfusion injury at the molecular and cellular levels, yet no study has quantified this effect in stroke patients. These preclinical models have also demonstrated the success of a wide array of neuroprotective strategies at lessening the deleterious effects of reperfusion injury. Serial multimodal imaging may provide a framework for developing therapies for reperfusion injury.09/2013; 1(3-4):185-99. DOI:10.1159/000353125