The Penumbra system for mechanical thrombectomy in endovascular acute ischemic stroke therapy
ABSTRACT Efficacy of IV systemic thrombolysis is limited in patients with severe acute ischemic stroke and large-vessel occlusion. Mechanical thrombectomy has been the mainstay therapy in large-vessel occlusion. This review focuses on the Penumbra aspiration device.
The Penumbra prospective studies were reviewed and results are presented. The pivotal single-arm prospective trial that led to its approval by the US Food and Drug Administration enrolled 125 patients within 8 hours of symptom onset and demonstrated an 82% recanalization rate, to Thrombolysis in Myocardial Ischemia (TIMI) scores of 2 and 3. The risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 10%, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≤2 was 25%. In the postmarketing registry, 157 vessels were treated, with 87% achieving TIMI 2 and 3 recanalization and 41% having an mRS score of ≤2.
The Penumbra aspiration system is an effective tool to safely revascularize large-vessel occlusions in patients within 8 hours of onset of acute ischemic stroke who are either refractory to or excluded from IV thrombolytic therapy. Further prospective, randomized controlled trials will be needed to address whether this ability translates into neurologic improvement and better functional outcomes for our patients.
SourceAvailable from: Joon-Tae Kim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background There has still been lack of evidence for definite imaging criteria of intra-arterial revascularization (IAR). Therefore, IAR selection is left largely to individual clinicians. In this study, we sought to investigate the overall agreement of IAR selection among different stroke clinicians and factors associated with good agreement of IAR selection. Methods From the prospectively registered data base of a tertiary hospital, we identified consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. IAR selection based on the provided magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and clinical information were independently performed by 5 independent stroke physicians currently working at 4 different university hospitals. MRI results were also reviewed by 2 independent experienced neurologists blinded to clinical data and physicians' IAR selection. The Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) was calculated on initial DWI and MTT. We arbitrarily used ASPECTS differences between DWI and MTT (D-M ASPECTS) to quantitatively evaluate mismatch. Results The overall interobserver agreement of IAR selection was fair (kappa = 0.398). In patients with DWI-ASPECTS >6, interobserver agreement was moderate to substantial (0.398–0.620). In patients with D-M ASPECTS >4, interobserver agreement was moderate to almost perfect (0.532–1.000). Patients with higher DWI or D-M ASPECTS had better agreement of IAR selection. Conclusion Our study showed that DWI-ASPSECTS >6 and D-M ASPECTS >4 had moderate to substantial agreement of IAR selection among different stroke physicians. However, there is still poor agreement as to whether IAR should not be performed in patients with lower DWI and D-M ASPECTS.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99261. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099261 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite ongoing advances in stroke imaging and treatment, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke continue to debilitate patients with devastating outcomes at both the personal and societal levels. While the ultimate goal of therapy in ischemic stroke is geared towards restoration of blood flow, even when mitigation of initial tissue hypoxia is successful, exacerbation of tissue injury may occur in the form of cell death, or alternatively, hemorrhagic transformation of reperfused tissue. Animal models have extensively demonstrated the concept of reperfusion injury at the molecular and cellular levels, yet no study has quantified this effect in stroke patients. These preclinical models have also demonstrated the success of a wide array of neuroprotective strategies at lessening the deleterious effects of reperfusion injury. Serial multimodal imaging may provide a framework for developing therapies for reperfusion injury.09/2013; 1(3-4):185-99. DOI:10.1159/000353125
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ABSTRACT: There is only very limited data about complications in mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and the clinical relevance of procedure-related complications in mechanical thrombectomy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 176 consecutive acute ischemic stroke cases that were treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Primary outcome measures included the following: symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), vessel dissection, emboli to new vascular territories, vasospasm, and stent dislocation/occlusion whenever appropriate. Secondary outcome measures included mTICI score, time from symptom onset to revascularization, and time from groin puncture to revascularization as well as the early clinical outcome at discharge. Complications occurred in 20/176 patients (11 %) comprising 23 adverse events at the following rates: sICH 8/176 (5 %), emboli to new vascular territories 4/176 (2 %); vessel dissection 3/176 (2 %); vasospasm of the access vessel 5/176 (3 %); stent dislocation in 1/42 (2 %); and stent occlusion in 2/42 (5 %). Two out of 20 (10 %) suffered from two or more procedure-related complications. There was a statistically significant correlation of complications with time from groin puncture to revascularization, unfavorable revascularization results, and unfavorable clinical outcome. Overall, the frequency of procedure-related complications lies within acceptable limits for an emergency procedure. The endovascular treatment does not seem to add significantly to the stroke patients' risk of sICH but implies an innate risk of stroke in an initially uninvolved territory. Furthermore, a prolonged endovascular procedure beyond an hour is correlated with higher complication rates, which underlines the importance of a swift and complete revascularization.Neuroradiology 03/2014; 56(6). DOI:10.1007/s00234-014-1352-0 · 2.37 Impact Factor