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    • "Despite the decline in prevalence, chronic liver disease will remain a huge burden to the Saudi healthcare system for years to come, with further challenges expected as a large number of undiagnosed cases begin to surface at an advanced stage of the disease. The proportion of patients with liver cirrhosis developing complications and requiring advanced care will rise in the next 20-40 years.[73] An initiative that includes early detection, proper timely assessment, and effective treatment represents an important goal. "
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    ABSTRACT: Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country's healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease's clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject.
    Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2012; 18(6):349-357. DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.103425 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel biosensor based on carbon paste electrode modified with Porphyridium cruentum biomass was developed for the determination of As(III) in contaminated water. As(III) was first biosorbed-accumulated on the electrode surface at open circuit potential and then stripped off by applying anodic scan range of -0.8 to +0.8V using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric technique. The best result was obtained at pH 6.0 with 0.1M HNO3 solution as stripping medium, allowing biosorption-accumulation time of 8min using 5% P. cruentum biomass in graphite-mineral oil paste. Linear range for As(III) detection with the modified electrode-biosensor was observed between 2.5 and 20µgL(-1). The FTIR spectrum of P. cruentum biomass confirmed the presence of active functional groups that participate in the binding of As(III). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indulged the surface morphology of modified electrode-biosensor before and after As(III) adsorption. Similarly, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) showed that the average roughness of the modified electrode decreased indicating the successful incorporation of P. cruentum biomass. Efficiency of the biosensor in the presence of different interfering metal (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) ions were also evaluated. The application of P. cruentum modified biosensor was successfully used for the detection of As(III) in the binary metal (Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Hg(2+), and Pb(2+)) contaminated system. The accuracy of application of biosorption based biosensor for the detection of As(III) is as low as 2.5µgL(-1).
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 12/2014; 62:242-248. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2014.06.055 · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a devastating disease that is increasingly being diagnosed among Filipinos, especially in at-risk populations. There are disease-specific nuances in the evaluation and management of this infection. Furthermore, advances in the field brought about by clinical research are rapidly moulding the way we evaluate and manage HCV patients. Evidently, consensus statements formulated by experts in the field are needed in order to serve as a guide to physicians who see HCV patients in the clinic. With this in mind, the Hepatology Society of the Philippines spearheaded the formation of these statements which aimed to address issues in the diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up care of patients with HCV infection. Recommendations on the specific tests to perform in the evaluation of HCV patients before, during and after treatment, and first-line treatment of patients with acute and chronic HCV infection were provided. Treatment algorithms for chronic HCV infection, divided according to viral genotype, were also devised. We acknowlege the limitations brought about by the local inavailability of some drugs/treatment regimens in the local setting at the time of the formulation of these statements. As such, these statements will be revised as soon as new data become locally applicable.