Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective treatments for depression that has atypical features or that has failed to respond to other antidepressants. However, MAOIs are underused because clinicians are concerned about dietary and drug interactions with this class of medication. Hypertensive crisis and serotonin syndrome can occur in rare cases due to interactions between MAOIs and foods containing tyramine as well as interactions with serotonergic and sympathomimetic agents. A better understanding of the foods and drugs that can cause adverse reactions, as well as knowledge of newer MAOIs with mechanisms of action and delivery methods that reduce these risks, may help clinicians to consider the use of these medications, when appropriate, in their patients with depression.
"The reluctance to use MAOI except in patients with refractory depression may be a cause of therapeutic failures. Reviewing the literature on MAOI therapy, the risks of hypertensive crisis from food containing tyramine or postural hypotension from false neurotransmitters are quite small, but can be catastrophic.17,18 The former can be avoided through proper diet and the latter through hydration, compressive stockings, and if needed mineralocorticoid supplementation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the incidence of depression increases, depression continues to inflict additional suffering to individuals and societies and better therapies are needed. Based on magnetic resonance spectroscopy and laboratory findings, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) may be intimately involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The isoelectric point of GABA (pI = 7.3) closely approximates the pH of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). This may not be a trivial observation as it may explain preliminary spectrophotometric, enzymatic, and HPLC data that monoamine oxidase (MAO) deaminates GABA. Although MAO is known to deaminate substrates such as catecholamines, indoleamines, and long chain aliphatic amines all of which contain a lipophilic moiety, there is very good evidence to predict that a low concentration of a very lipophilic microspecies of GABA is present when GABA pI = pH as in the CSF. Inhibiting deamination of this microspecies of GABA could explain the well-established successful treatment of refractory depression with MAO inhibitors (MAOI) when other antidepressants that target exclusively levels of monoamines fail. If further experimental work can confirm these preliminary findings, physicians may consider revisiting the use of MAOI for the treatment of non-intractable depression because the potential benefits of increasing GABA as well as the monoamines may outweigh the risks associated with MAOI therapy.
Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry 04/2014; 6(6):1-8. DOI:10.4137/PMC.S11375
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug-nutrient interactions are defined as physical, chemical, physiologic, or pathophysiologic relationships between a drug and a nutrient. The causes of most clinically significant drug-nutrient interactions are usually multifactorial. Failure to identify and properly manage drug-nutrient interactions can lead to very serious consequences and have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Nevertheless, with thorough review and assessment of the patient's history and treatment regimens and a carefully executed management strategy, adverse events associated with drug-nutrient interactions can be prevented. Based on the physiologic sequence of events after a drug or a nutrient has entered the body and the mechanism of interactions, drug-nutrient interactions can be categorized into 4 main types. Each type of interaction can be managed using similar strategies. The existing data that guide the clinical management of most drug-nutrient interactions are mostly anecdotal experience, uncontrolled observations, and opinions, whereas the science in understanding the mechanism of drug-nutrient interactions remains limited. The challenge for researchers and clinicians is to increase both basic and higher level clinical research in this field to bridge the gap between the science and practice. The research should aim to establish a better understanding of the function, regulation, and substrate specificity of the nutrient-related enzymes and transport proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as assess how the incidence and management of drug-nutrient interactions can be affected by sex, ethnicity, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphisms. This knowledge can help us develop a true personalized medicine approach in the prevention and management of drug-nutrient interactions.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 05/2013; 37(4). DOI:10.1177/0148607113488799 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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