Adolescent survivors of burn injuries and their parents' perceptions of recovery outcomes: Do they agree or disagree?
ABSTRACT This study analyzed the concordance of parent and child in assessing the progress of child and adolescent survivors of burn injuries using health outcomes.
The American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (BOQ) was completed by 355 pairs of parents and their 11- to 18-year-old adolescents who experienced a burn injury. These patients completed BOQ child/parent questionnaire pairs at four regional pediatric burn care centers nationally during the first 4 years postburn. The BOQ includes 12 scales that range from physical to emotional health. Predicted recovery curves for each scale (dependent variable) were obtained from generalized linear models, with the independent variables the logarithmic transformation of the time since burn and parent/child as the principal indicator. Covariates included sociodemographics and clinical severity.
Mean differences between the parent and adolescent scale scores were small, with few insignificant exceptions. Most of the recovery curves over time for the parent and the adolescent were undifferentiated, except for the outcome of appearance where the adolescent rating was better than that of the parent (p < 0.01) and itch was judged as worse than that of the parent (p < 0.01). School reentry was rated higher by the adolescent initially (p < 0.001), but after 18 months, it was rated higher by the parent (p = 0.012).
Analysis of the BOQ completed by adolescents and their parents reveal similar estimates of recovery following the burn injury. These results suggest that the adolescent's reported outcomes can be used interchangeably with the parent's assessments, with the exception of appearance, itch, and school reentry, where there are some differences.
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ABSTRACT: Pruritus is a frequent and severe symptom and a significant cause of distress for adult burn patients. Its effects in children are largely unstudied. The aim of this study is to characterize postburn itch in the pediatric population. This is a retrospective review from 2006 to 2013 for pediatric burn survivors who were enrolled in a longitudinal multicenter outcomes study. Demographic data, injury characteristics, associated symptoms (skin-related problems, pain, and sleep), and incidence and intensity (Numerical Rating Scale) of itch were examined. Measures were completed at hospital discharge and at 6, 12, and 24 months after injury. Spearman's correlations were used to examine the correlation between itch intensity and associated symptoms. Multivariate regression analyses examined the impact of associated symptoms on itch intensity. There were 430 pediatric burn survivors with a mean age of 7.8 years and a mean TBSA of 40.8%. Pruritus is present in most children (93%) and is of moderate intensity (5.7 ± 3.1) at discharge. The frequency and intensity of pruritus decreases over time; a majority of children continue to report symptoms at 2 years (63%). Itch was significantly correlated with associated symptoms. Regression analyses showed a correlation between itch intensity and pain at each time point. There was no association between itch intensity and burn etiology, age, gender, or burn size. Pruritus is a frequent complication that lasts for at least 2 years after injury in a majority of pediatric burn survivors. This information will enable better tracking of outcomes and will serve as a baseline for assessing interventions.Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 08/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1097/BCR.0000000000000145 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The impact of burn size on mortality is well known, but the association of burn size with the trajectories of long-term functional outcomes remains poorly studied. This prospective multi-center study included burned adults ages 19 to 30 years who completed the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire at initial baseline contact, 2 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months after initial questionnaire administration. Non-burned adults of comparable ages also completed the questionnaire as a reference group. The association between functional recovery and TBSA burned was analyzed longitudinally using generalized linear models with the generalized estimation equation technique. Functional status was characterized in 15 domains: physical function, fine motor function, pain, itch, social function limited by physical function, perceived appearance, social function limited by appearance, sexual function, emotion, family function, family concern, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, work reintegration, and religion. Scores were standardized to a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 based on non-burned controls. There were 153 burned and 112 non-burned subjects with a total of 620 questionnaires. TBSA burned was 11 + 14% (mean + SD); 31% had face involvement and 57% had hand involvement. The lag time from burn injury to questionnaire administration was on average 7 + 7.7 months, with a maximum of 36 months. Lower recovery levels were associated with increasing burn size for physical function, pain, itch, work reintegration, emotion, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, family function, and family concern (P value ranged from .04-<.0001). No significant differences in recovery levels were found with increasing burn size for fine motor function, social function limited by physical function, sexual function, and religion; these areas tracked toward the age-matched non-burned group regardless of burn size. Perceived appearance and social function limited by appearance remained below the non-burn levels throughout the 3-year period regardless of burn size. Three-year recovery trajectories of survivors with larger burn size showed improvements in most areas, but these improvements lagged behind those with smaller burns. Poor perceived appearance was persistent and prevalent regardless of burn size and was found to limit social function in these young adult burn survivors. Expectations for multidimensional recovery from burns in young adults can be benchmarked based on burn size with important implications for patient monitoring and intervening in clinical care.Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 12/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1097/BCR.0000000000000214 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A mixed-method, qualitative dominant design was implemented to understand how visible changes in appearance, and function, govern childhood burn survivors' and their siblings' perceptions of their body image (BI). Thirteen cases (n = 21 participants) contributed to this analysis. Each "case" represented a family unit. Findings were internal to the person (grouped as self-esteem, and personality type). Other findings were external to the person (grouped as the social environment and interpersonal experiences of the siblings). Findings suggest that the children focused on developing a positive BI satisfaction. Research is needed to better understand how this occurs despite visible appearance changes.Journal of Pediatric Nursing 09/2014; 30(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pedn.2014.09.009 · 0.92 Impact Factor