Optimization of electroporation-enhanced intradermal delivery of DNA vaccine using a minimally invasive surface device
ABSTRACT In vivo electroporation (EP) is an efficient nonviral method for enhancing DNA vaccine delivery and immunogenicity in animals and humans. Intradermal delivery of DNA vaccines is an attractive strategy because of the immunocompetence of skin tissue. We have previously reported a minimally invasive surface intradermal EP (SEP) device for delivery of prophylactic DNA vaccines. Robust antibody responses were induced after vaccine delivery via surface EP in several tested animal models. Here we further investigated the optimal EP parameters for efficient delivery of DNA vaccines, with a specific emphasis on eliciting cellular immunity in addition to robust humoral responses. In a mouse model, using applied voltages of 10-100 V, transgene expression of green fluorescent protein and luciferase reporter genes increased significantly when voltages as low as 10 V were used as compared with DNA injection only. Tissue damage to skin was undetectable when voltages of 20 V and less were applied. However, inflammation and bruising became apparent at voltages above 40 V. Delivery of DNA vaccines encoding influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin (H5HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza H1N1 at applied voltages of 10-100 V elicited robust and sustained antibody responses. In addition, low-voltage (less than 20 V) EP elicited higher and more sustained cellular immune responses when compared with the higher voltage (above 20 V) EP groups after two immunizations. The data confirm that low-voltage EP, using the SEP device, is capable of efficient delivery of DNA vaccines into the skin, and establishes that these parameters are sufficient to elicit both robust and sustainable humoral as well as cellular immune responses without tissue damage. The SEP device, functioning within these parameters, may have important clinical applications for delivery of prophylactic DNA vaccines against diseases such as HIV infection, malaria, and tuberculosis that require both cellular and humoral immune responses for protection.
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- "In the same manner, a microneedle array with electrical functionality has shown encouraging results in human epidermal cells as well as human red blood cells (102). Recent optimizations to a minimally invasive surface intradermal EP device have shown that low-voltage EP applied to the skin can elicit robust humoral and cellular immune responses without tissue damage (103). Some of these changes to the EP protocol may be broadly applicable to a number of different DNA vaccines, while other DNA vaccines will require specialized tweaks to the EP protocol to generate the precise immune response needed to combat the intended target. "
ABSTRACT: In recent years, DNA vaccines have undergone a number of technological advancements that have incited renewed interest and heightened promise in the field. Two such improvements are the use of genetically engineered cytokine adjuvants and plasmid delivery via in vivo electroporation (EP), the latter of which has been shown to increase antigen delivery by nearly 1000-fold compared to naked DNA plasmid delivery alone. Both strategies, either separately or in combination, have been shown to augment cellular and humoral immune responses in not only mice, but also in large animal models. These promising results, coupled with recent clinical trials that have shown enhanced immune responses in humans, highlight the bright prospects for DNA vaccines to address many human diseases.Frontiers in Immunology 11/2013; 4:354. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00354
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ABSTRACT: Transdermal drug delivery continues to provide an advantageous route of drug administration over injections. While the number of drugs delivered by passive transdermal patches has increased over the years, no macromolecule is currently delivered by the transdermal route. Substantial research efforts have been dedicated by a large number of researchers representing varied disciplines including biology, chemistry, pharmaceutics and engineering to understand, model and overcome the skin's barrier properties. This article focuses on engineering contributions to the field of transdermal drug delivery. The article pays tribute to Prof. Robert Langer, who pioneered the engineering approach towards transdermal drug delivery. Over a period spanning nearly 25 years since his first publication in the field of transdermal drug delivery, Bob Langer has deeply impacted the field by quantitative analysis and innovative engineering. At the same time, he has inspired several generations of engineers by collaborations and mentorship. His scientific insights, innovative technologies, translational efforts and dedicated mentorship have transformed the field. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.Skin pharmacology and physiology 01/2013; 26(4-6):263-76. DOI:10.1159/000351947 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of electroporation to facilitate gene transfer is an extremely powerful and useful method for both in vitro and in vivo applications. One of its great strengths is that it induces functional destabilization and permeabilization of cell membranes throughout a tissue leading to widespread gene transfer to multiple cells and cell types within the electric field. While this is a strength, it can also be a limitation in terms of cell-specific gene delivery. The ability to restrict gene delivery and expression to particular cell types is of paramount importance for many types of gene therapy, since ectopic expression of a transgene could lead to deleterious host inflammatory responses or dysregulation of normal cellular functions. At present, there are relatively few ways to obtain cell-specific targeting of nonviral vectors, molecular probes, small molecules, and imaging agents. We have developed a novel means of restricting gene delivery to desired cell types based on the ability to control the transport of plasmids into the nuclei of desired cell types. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms of this approach and several applications in living animals to demonstrate the benefits of the combination of electroporation and selective nuclear import of plasmids for cell-specific gene delivery.Journal of Membrane Biology 03/2013; 246(10). DOI:10.1007/s00232-013-9534-y · 2.17 Impact Factor