Intraventricular antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in neonates
ABSTRACT Neonatal meningitis may be caused by bacteria, especially gram-negative bacteria, which are difficult to eradicate from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using safe doses of antibiotics. In theory, intraventricular administration of antibiotics would produce higher antibiotic concentrations in the CSF than intravenous administration alone, and eliminate the bacteria more quickly. However, ventricular taps may cause harm.
To assess the effectiveness and safety of intraventricular antibiotics (with or without intravenous antibiotics) in neonates with meningitis (with or without ventriculitis) as compared to treatment with intravenous antibiotics alone.
The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL and Science Citation Index were searched in June 2007. The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials was searched in June 2004. Pediatric Research (abstracts of proceedings) were searched (1990 to April 2007) as were reference lists of identified trials and personal files. No language restrictions were applied.This search was updated in May 2011.
Selection criteria for study inclusion were: randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in which intraventricular antibiotics with or without intravenous antibiotics were compared with intravenous antibiotics alone in neonates (< 28 days old) with meningitis. One of the following outcomes was required to be reported: mortality during initial hospitalisation; neonatal or infant mortality, or both; neurodevelopmental outcome; duration of hospitalisation; duration of culture positivity of CSF and side effects.
All review authors abstracted information for outcomes reported and one review author checked for discrepancies and entered data into RevMan 5.1. Risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH), and mean difference (MD), using the fixed-effect model are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
The updated search in June 2011 did not identify any new trials. One study is included in the review. This study assessed the effect of intraventricular gentamicin in a mixed population of neonates (69%) and older infants (31%) with gram-negative meningitis and ventriculitis. Mortality was statistically significantly higher in the group that received intraventricular gentamicin in addition to intravenous antibiotics compared to the group receiving intravenous antibiotics alone (RR 3.43; 95% CI 1.09 to 10.74; RD 0.30; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.53); NNTH 3; 95% CI 2 to 13). Duration of CSF culture positivity did not differ significantly (MD -1.20 days; 95% CI -2.67 to 0.27).
In one trial that enrolled infants with gram-negative meningitis and ventriculitis, the use of intraventricular antibiotics in addition to intravenous antibiotics resulted in a three-fold increased RR for mortality compared to standard treatment with intravenous antibiotics alone. Based on this result, intraventricular antibiotics as tested in this trial should be avoided. Further trials comparing these interventions are not justified in this population.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis-induced brain injury by establishing rat pneumococcal meningitis models. Infant Wistar rats were intracranially inoculated with different concentrations of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Rats were sacrificed at different time points to observe clinical symptoms and pathological changes in brain tissues. Twenty-four hours after intracranial inoculation with Streptococcus pneumoniae, regardless of high or low concentrations of bacterial inoculation, all rats developed bacterial meningitis with manifestations such as lethargy and seizures. Pathological changes in brain tissues included subarachnoid and intraventricular inflammation, vasodilation and vascular congestion, and cortical neuronal necrosis. The number of rats with seizures, the degree of cerebral vascular disease, and the extent of neuronal damage were associated with the concentration of bacterial inoculum. Thirty days after infection, brain tissue weight significantly reduced. The pathological changes induced by inoculation with pneumococcal meningitis in Wistar rats were similar to those seen in the human brain. The possible mechanisms of brain damage caused by meningitis are cerebrovascular inflammation and disruption of regional cerebral blood flow.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2015; 8(2):2242-8. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the past 20 years, an increased discrepancy between new available antibacterials and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has been observed. This condition concerns physicians involved in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) infections, for which clinical and microbiological success depends on the rapid achievement of bactericidal concentrations. In order to accomplish this aim, the choice of drugs is based on their disposition toward the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of antibacterials. A reduced distribution into CSF has been documented for beta-lactams, especially cephalosporins and carbapenems, on the basis of their hydrophilic nature. However, they represent a cornerstone of the majority of combined therapeutic schemes for their ability to achieve bactericidal concentrations, especially in the presence of inflamed meninges. The good tolerability of beta-lactams makes possible high daily dose intensities, which may be associated with increased probability of cure. Furthermore, the adoption of continuous infusion seems to be a fruitful option. Fluoroquinolones, namely moxifloxacin, and antituberculosis drugs, together with the agents such as linezolid, reach the highest CSF/plasma concentration ratio, which is greater than 0.8, and for most of these drugs it is near 1. For all drugs that are currently used for the treatment of CNS infections, the evaluation of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters, on the basis of dosing regimens and their time-dependent or concentration-dependent pattern of bacterial killing, remains an important aspect of clinical investigation and medical practice.Clinical Pharmacokinetics 04/2013; 52(7). DOI:10.1007/s40262-013-0062-9 · 5.49 Impact Factor