Malaria and its vectors in Poland. (Malaria i jej wektory w Polsce).
ABSTRACT In central Europe, also in Poland, the prevalence of malaria due to infections by Plasmodium vivax was observed. This parasite was transmitted almost exclusively by Anopheles atroparvus and An. messeae. The latter one was involved in malaria transmission in eastern Europe and western Asia, was while An. atroparvus played the most important role as a malaria vector in north-western Europe. Malaria was endemic in some areas of Poland during the years following World War I. Endemic areas were found especially in swampy lowlands. The disease reappeared in Poland at the end of World War II and, again, most attention was paid to the Anopheles maculipennis complex and particularly to An. atroparvus and An. messeae. However, despite numerous publications, our knowledge on the distribution of Culicidae in Poland, especially Anophelinae, remains fragmentary and inadequate, and does not reflect the actual situation. Although endemic malaria has disappeared, every year more than 20 cases of malaria imported into Poland by tourists and other travelers from malaria endemic areas. This has inceased the concern for a reintroduction of malaria into our country. Climatic changes such as global warming and assiociated increased precipitation are extend vector ranges and population sizes of some species, potentially inceasing malaria transmission rates.