Waste excretion of marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker) fed with different diets

Department of Engineering Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Tringano, Terengganu, Malaysia
Aquaculture (Impact Factor: 1.88). 01/2008; 274(1):49-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.11.023


Marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker), with its high demand and price, has a great potential as a profitable commercial aquaculture candidate in Malaysia and Southeast Asia region. Efforts are being made to produce this species in a better controlled culture environment like recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) due to poor growth performance and disease problems shown by conventional cage and outdoor pond culture systems. Quantification of waste excreted by fish is critical to RAS design. This study was conducted to characterize the waste excretion rates of marble goby fed with different diets (live food and minced fish). Ammonia-N (TAN), urea-N, nitrite-N (NO 2 -N), nitrate-N (NO 3 -N), total-N (TN), organic-N (ON), feces-N, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5) and total suspended solid (TSS) produced from marble goby were determined over a 72-h excretion period. Under given experimental conditions, the results showed that feed type had significant influence on the waste excretion rates, with marble goby fed live tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exhibiting significantly (P < 0.05) the lowest amount of waste excretion comparable to that of fish fed live common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and minced scads (Decapterus russellii). This indicates that feeding marble goby with tilapia poses less adverse effects on water quality and is thus a suitable diet for this species. The waste excreted by the fish is composed of nitrogenous excretion (TAN, Urea-N, ON, Feces-N), and productions of dissolved biodegradable organic substances (BOD 5) and TSS (TSS feces + TSS water). About 58–71% of the nitrogen consumed in food was excreted and its rate depended mainly on the feed type. TAN was the chief end-product of protein metabolism; about 74–84% of the daily total nitrogenous excretion was TAN. Urea-N accounted for 13–21% of the daily total nitrogenous excretion indicating that urea-N is an important nitrogenous excretory end-product in marble goby. The waste excretion data presented in this study can be served as a pre-requisite for designing a RAS for this species. The overall BOD 5 and TSS production found in this study also point to the need for including bio-filtration unit and suspended solids removal mechanism in the RAS design.

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    • "Marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker), commonly known to the Southeast Asians as " Ketutu " or " Soon Hock " , is a good eating freshwater fish. It commands a high price with its market value in Malaysia ranging from a wholesale price of RM60/kg to RM86/kg [1] [2] [3]. Owing to its high market value, it is regarded as a potential profitable aquaculture species in Malaysia, and vigorous efforts have been made to perfect the techniques for the culture of this fish. "
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    ABSTRACT: Marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker), a profitable aquaculture species, was cultured in partitioned tanks treated with a water recirculating aquaponic system (RAS). The influence of tank design (with partitions and PVC tubes of different sizes) and feed type (live food and minced fish) on the fish growth and waste production was investigated. The fish cultured in big partitions with PVC tubes showed higher growth (2.5 g/d) and feed intake (468 g/d) than other tank designs (growth: 2.2 g/d; feed intake: 433 g/d). The growth of fish fed with live tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (2.5 g/d) was significantly higher than that of fish fed with live carp (Cyprinus carpio) (1.9 g/d) and minced scads (Decapterus russellii) (1.6 g/d). Fish fed with minced scads showed the highest waste production (ammonia nitrogen (TAN): 262 mg/kg d; 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5): 434 mg DO/kg d; total suspended solid (TSS): 2.1 g/kg d) compared to those fed with live food (tilapia and carp) (TAN: 208 mg/kg d; BOD5: 344 mg DO/kg d; TSS: 1.9 g/kg d). Live food, particularly tilapia, was found to be the preferential diet for marble goby as indicated by the highest fish growth (2.5 g/d) and feed utilization (feed conversion efficiency (FCE): 0.46), and the lowest waste production (TAN: 140 mg/kg d; BOD5: 232 mg DO/kg d; TSS: 1.4 g/kg d) compared to that of fish fed with minced fish (growth: 1.6 g/d; FCE: 0.31; TAN: 198 mg/kg d; BOD5: 328 mg DO/kg d; TSS: 1.9 g/kg d). Our results also indicate that the use of culture tank with big partitions and PVC tubes coupled with a RAS show exceptional promise as a means to the reduction of waste by marble goby fed with live tilapia (TAN: 140 mg/kg d; BOD5: 232 mg DO/kg d; TSS: 1.8 g/kg d) and in turn providing a good water quality environment for the culture of the fish.
    Desalination and water treatment 08/2013; 52(4-6):1044-1053. DOI:10.1080/19443994.2013.826854 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    • "Interestingly, intestinal activities of O-UC enzymes have been observed not only in the ureotelic toadfish Opsanus beta (Wood et al., 1995b; Julsrud et al., 1998), but also the ammoniotelic largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (Kong et al., 1998) and bowfin (Amia calva) (Felskie et al., 1998). While the physiological significance of these findings is unknown, urea- N excretion rates of ammoniotelic fish were responsive to alterations in ration, dietary composition and starvation (Beamish and Thomas, 1984; Wright, 1993; Alsop and Wood, 1997; Kajimura et al., 2004; Lam et al., 2008), suggesting a role for the GI tract in urea synthesis. With the above background in mind, using plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus), we hypothesized a model of urea excretion wherein this species could locally detoxify lumen ammonia to urea in the gut tissue and then transport all or a portion of this urea back to the lumen for excretion with rectal fluids. "
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    ABSTRACT: Digestion affects nitrogen metabolism in fish, as both exogenous and endogenous proteins and amino acids are catabolized, liberating ammonia in the process. Here we present a model of local detoxification of ammonia by the intestinal tissue of the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) during digestion, resulting in an increase in urea excretion of gastrointestinal origin. Corroborating evidence indicated whole animal ammonia and urea excretion increased following feeding and ammonia levels within the lumen of the midshipman intestine increased to high levels (1.8 ± 0.4 μmol N g(-1)). We propose that this ammonia entered the enterocytes and was detoxified to urea via the ornithine urea cycle (OU-C) enzymes, as evidenced by a 1.5 - 2.9 fold post-prandial increase in glutamine synthetase activity (0.14 ± 0.05 μmol min(-1)g(-1) and 0.28 ± 0.02 μmol min(-1) g(-1) vs. 0.41 ± 0.03 μmol min(-1)g(-1)) and an 8.7 fold increase in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III activity (0.3 ± 1.2 nmol min(-1)g(-1) vs. 2.6 ± 0.4 nmol min(-1)g(-1)). Furthermore, digestion increased urea production by isolated gastrointestinal tissue 1.7 fold supporting our hypothesis that intestinal tissue synthesizes urea in response to feeding. We further propose that the intestinal urea may have been excreted into the intestinal lumen via an apical urea transporter (UT) as visualized using immunohistochemistry. A portion of the urea was then excreted to the environment along with the feces, resulting in the observed increase in urea excretion, while another portion may have been used by intestinal ureolytic bacteria. Overall, we propose that P. notatus produces urea within the enterocytes via a functional OU-C which is then excreted into the intestinal lumen. Our model of intestinal nitrogen metabolism does not appear to be universal as we were unable to activate the OU-C in the intestine of fed rainbow trout. However, literature values suggest that multiple fish species could follow this model.
    Journal of Experimental Biology 04/2013; 216(15). DOI:10.1242/jeb.081562 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine postprandial nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the juvenile marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (30–80 g), fed a high protein diet (cod fish fillet). Feeding led to only a slight increase in plasma ammonia concentration and had no significant effect on the ammonia content in the brain of juvenile O. marmorata during the subsequent 24 h. Unlike other fishes, juvenile O. marmorata could apparently avoid postprandial ammonia toxicity, and as a result there was no increase in the brain glutamine content, which decreased significantly instead at certain post-feeding time point. Since no prominent increases in tissue glutamine and urea contents were observed after feeding despite its ability to detoxify ammonia to glutamine during emersion and its possession of a full complement of hepatic ornithine-urea cycle enzymes, it can be concluded that only a moderate amount of ammonia was produced after feeding. Traditionally, it has been accepted that excess amino acid would be degraded in the liver through transdeamination which involves the deamination of glutamate catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). However, we report for the first time that glutamate content in liver and intestine of juvenile O. marmorata increased to 10.8 µmol g− 1 and 3.3 µmol g− 1, respectively, 6 h post-feeding. These results indicate that the rate of glutamate catabolism in the liver was lower than the total rate of glutamate released directly from protein degradation and produced indirectly from other amino acids through transamination. Indeed, feeding led to significant increases in hepatic GDH amination activity and intestinal GDH activity, in both amination and deamination directions, in juvenile O. marmorata. Thus, there could be an increase in the capacity of the liver, and perhaps the intestine, to produce and retain glutamate after feeding. As a result, only 33% of the ingested nitrogen was excreted during the 24-h post-feeding period, with 67% being retained for somatic growth. Results obtained from this study can be useful for designing re-circulating aquaculture systems for juvenile marble goby, and they offer insights into mechanisms that can be induced by feeding to retain ingested nitrogen.
    Aquaculture 11/2008; 284(1-4-284):260-267. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.07.039 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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