Outcome of high-risk neonates with congenital complete heart block paced in the first 24 hours after birth
ABSTRACT Risk factors for poor outcome with congenital complete heart block include prematurity, low birth weight, hydrops, low ventricular rates, and congenital heart disease. In this group, medical therapy is often ineffective, pacing is technically challenging, and mortality exceeds 80%. The purpose of this study is to assess outcomes of patients with congenital complete heart block who were paced in the first 24 hours after birth owing to the presence of known risk factors.
We performed a retrospective review of patients with congenital complete heart block paced in the first 24 hours after birth at our institution between November 1, 1995, and July 31, 2007.
Thirteen patients were identified, 4 of whom had heterotaxy syndrome. Eleven patients had temporary epicardial pacing wires placed; 2 received permanent pacemakers as the initial mode of pacing. There were 7 deaths (54% mortality) at a mean age of 19.9 +/- 19 days. Among 7 patients with structural heart disease, there was 1 survivor. Among 6 patients with structurally normal hearts, there were 5 survivors (P = .025). Patients with temporary wires who survived to permanent pacemaker implantation (6/11) used their temporary leads for 33.8 +/- 18.3 days.
In the severely affected fetus with congenital complete heart block and significant structural heart disease, outcomes remain poor; however, neonates with congenital complete heart block and structurally normal hearts who are monitored antenatally and delivered in a planned fashion at an institution capable of early pacing can have favorable outcomes. The use of temporary pacing wires is an option in the management of these patients.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to review the current management and outcomes of fetal bradycardia in 9Spanish centers. Retrospective multicenter study: analysis of all fetuses with bradycardia diagnosed between January 2008 and September 2010. Underlying mechanisms of fetal bradyarrhythmias were studied with echocardiography. A total of 37cases were registered: 3 sinus bradycardia, 15 blocked atrial bigeminy, and 19 high grade atrioventricular blocks. Sinus bradycardia: 3 cases (100%) were associated with serious diseases. Blocked atrial bigeminy had an excellent outcome, except for one case with post-natal tachyarrhythmia. Of the atrioventricular blocks, 16% were related to congenital heart defects with isomerism, 63% related to the presence of maternal SSA/Ro antibodies, and 21% had unclear etiology. Overall mortality was 20% (37%, if terminations of pregnancy are taken into account). Risk factors for mortality were congenital heart disease, hydrops and/or ventricular dysfunction. Management strategies differed among centers. Steroids were administrated in 73% of immune-mediated atrioventricular blocks, including the only immune-mediated IInd grade block. More than half (58%) of atrioventricular blocks had a pacemaker implanted in a follow-up of 18months. Sustained fetal bradycardia requires a comprehensive study in all cases, including those with sinus bradycardia. Blocked atrial bigeminy has a good prognosis, but tachyarrhythmias may develop. Heart block has significant mortality and morbidity rates, and its management is still highly controversial.Anales de Pediatría 02/2014; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this statement is to review available literature and to put forth a scientific statement on the current practice of fetal cardiac medicine, including the diagnosis and management of fetal cardiovascular disease. A writing group appointed by the American Heart Association reviewed the available literature pertaining to topics relevant to fetal cardiac medicine, including the diagnosis of congenital heart disease and arrhythmias, assessment of cardiac function and the cardiovascular system, and available treatment options. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification of recommendations and level of evidence for practice guidelines were applied to the current practice of fetal cardiac medicine. Recommendations relating to the specifics of fetal diagnosis, including the timing of referral for study, indications for referral, and experience suggested for performance and interpretation of studies, are presented. The components of a fetal echocardiogram are described in detail, including descriptions of the assessment of cardiac anatomy, cardiac function, and rhythm. Complementary modalities for fetal cardiac assessment are reviewed, including the use of advanced ultrasound techniques, fetal magnetic resonance imaging, and fetal magnetocardiography and electrocardiography for rhythm assessment. Models for parental counseling and a discussion of parental stress and depression assessments are reviewed. Available fetal therapies, including medical management for arrhythmias or heart failure and closed or open intervention for diseases affecting the cardiovascular system such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome, lung masses, and vascular tumors, are highlighted. Catheter-based intervention strategies to prevent the progression of disease in utero are also discussed. Recommendations for delivery planning strategies for fetuses with congenital heart disease including models based on classification of disease severity and delivery room treatment will be highlighted. Outcome assessment is reviewed to show the benefit of prenatal diagnosis and management as they affect outcome for babies with congenital heart disease. Fetal cardiac medicine has evolved considerably over the past 2 decades, predominantly in response to advances in imaging technology and innovations in therapies. The diagnosis of cardiac disease in the fetus is mostly made with ultrasound; however, new technologies, including 3- and 4-dimensional echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and fetal electrocardiography and magnetocardiography, are available. Medical and interventional treatments for select diseases and strategies for delivery room care enable stabilization of high-risk fetuses and contribute to improved outcomes. This statement highlights what is currently known and recommended on the basis of evidence and experience in the rapidly advancing and highly specialized field of fetal cardiac care.Circulation 04/2014; 129(21). DOI:10.1161/01.cir.0000437597.44550.5d · 14.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital atrioventricular (AV) block is commonly associated with heterotaxy syndrome; together they have reportedly low survival rates (10-25 %). However, information about perinatal outcome and predictors of non-survival after prenatal diagnosis of this association is scarce. Therefore, we studied fetuses with heterotaxy syndrome and bradycardia or AV-block diagnosed between 1995 and 2011, and analyzed pre and post-natal variables. The primary outcome was death and the secondary outcome was pacemaker placement. Of the 154 fetuses with heterotaxy syndrome, 91 had polysplenia syndrome, 22/91(24 %) with bradycardia or AV-block. Thirteen (59 %) patients had sinus bradycardia at diagnosis, 8 (36 %) complete AV block, and 1 (5 %) second-degree AV-block. Three patients elected for termination of pregnancy (3/22, 14 %), 4 had spontaneous fetal demise (4/22, 18 %), and 15 (15/22, 68 %) were live-born. Of the fetuses with bradycardia/AV-block, 30 % presented with hydrops, 20 % had ventricular rates <55 beats/min, and 10 % had cardiac dysfunction. Excluding termination of pregnancy, 15/19 fetuses (79 %) survived to birth. Among the 15 live-born patients, 4 had bradycardia and 11 had AV-block. A further 3 patients died in infancy, all with AV-block who required pacemakers in the neonatal period. Thus, the 1-year survival rate, excluding termination of pregnancy, was 63 % (12/19). Of the remaining 12 patients, 9 required pacemaker. Predictors of perinatal death included hydrops (p < 0.0001), ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.002), prematurity (p = 0.04), and low ventricular rates (p = 0.04). In conclusion, we found a higher survival rate (63 %) than previously published in patients with heterotaxy syndrome and AV block or bradycardia diagnosed prenatally. Hydrops, cardiac dysfunction, prematurity and low ventricular rates were predictors of death.Pediatric Cardiology 02/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00246-014-0874-x · 1.55 Impact Factor