Retinoic Acid Synthesis and Signaling during Early Organogenesis

Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Development and Aging Program, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 32.24). 10/2008; 134(6):921-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.002
Source: PubMed


Retinoic acid, a derivative of vitamin A, is an essential component of cell-cell signaling during vertebrate organogenesis. In early development, retinoic acid organizes the trunk by providing an instructive signal for posterior neuroectoderm and foregut endoderm and a permissive signal for trunk mesoderm differentiation. At later stages, retinoic acid contributes to the development of the eye and other organs. Recent studies suggest that retinoic acid may act primarily in a paracrine manner and provide insight into the cell-cell signaling networks that control differentiation of pluripotent cells.

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    • "O): Distilled water. (CH activity of retinoic acid during the development of the vertebrate embryo (Duester, 2008). A similar finding of pyridoxal oxidase has been made in detailed studies of the enzyme purified from rabbit liver, which had higher activity (Choi et al., 1983). "
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    • "The potential health benefits of Carolight TM include the alleviation of vitamin A deficiency, which affects more than 20 million pregnant women and 100 million children in LMICs, up to 500 000 of whom go blind and/or suffer growth defects (Bates, 1995; Duester, 2008; Harrison, 2005; HarvestPlus, 2014; McCullough et al., 1999). "
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    Plant Biotechnology Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/pbi.12488 · 5.75 Impact Factor
    • "During embryogenesis vitamin A signaling through its bioactive metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) is indispensable for development of the body axis as well as most organs, including the kidney (Duester, 2008; Rhinn and Doll e, 2012). RA functions as a ligand for nuclear receptor (RAR) which binds with retinoid- X receptor (RXR) to RA response element (RARE) to modulate transcription of RA target genes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Development of the pronephros in Xenopus laevis is largely dependent on retinoic acid signaling at the time of kidney field specification with the simultaneous occurrence of a necessary calcium signaling. At the crossroads of these two signaling pathways, we studied the role of Hspa9 (heat shock 70kDa protein 9) encoding a mitochondrial chaperone in pronephros development. We first showed that Hspa9 is highly expressed in the pronephros territory and elongating nephric duct. We then observed that upon reduced retinoic acid signaling hspa9 expression was reduced as pax8 and pax2. Overexpression of hspa9 enlarged the pax8 positive pronephros territory, leading to a larger pronephric tubule. Loss of function of hspa9 in the kidney field using morpholino approach severely reduced pax8 expression and pronephros formation. Phenotypic rescue was achieved by co-injection of the full length murine Hspa9 mRNA. However, no rescue was observed when Hspa9 mRNA lacking the mitochondrial-targeting sequence was injected, as this truncated form is able to interfere with pronephros formation when injected solely. Hspa9 is an important mediator for pronephros development through modulation of pax8. Mitochondrial functions of hspa9 are likely to be involved in specification of pronephric cell fate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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