Bacterial Pathogens of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Tertiary Referral Hospital

Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases 07/2012; 73(1):32-7. DOI: 10.4046/trd.2012.73.1.32
Source: PubMed


This study evaluates the bacterial pathogens of Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a tertiary referral hospital.
A total of 109 bacterial pathogens from 91 adult patients with VAP, who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit from January 2008 to December 2009, were examined. Clinical characteristics, bacterial pathogens, and resistance profiles were analyzed.
Staphylococcus aureus (44%) was the most frequently isolated. Acinetobacter baumanii (30%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6%), and Serratia marcescens (2%) were isolated from the transtracheal aspirates or bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with VAP. There was no significant difference of bacterial pathogens between early and late onset VAP. All isolated S. aureus were methicillin resistant S. aureus; the imipenem resistance rate of A. baumanii was 69%.
The two most frequent pathogens of VAP were S. aureus and A. baumanii. There were no pathogenic differences between early and late onset VAP.

Download full-text


Available from: Yong Soo Kwon, May 02, 2014
36 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To estimate the incidence of pneumonia acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU), and to define risk factors for developing such an event. European prospective survey, in which all patients admitted to the participating ICU from January, 17 to 23, 1990, were followed until ICU discharge. 107 general ICUs from 18 countries. Of 1078 admitted to the ICUs, 996 patients without pneumonia at admission were studied. Pneumonia was diagnosed by the staff physician on the basis of clinical, radiological and microbiological criteria, secondly validated by an expert committee who reviewed all the forms and even recontacted ICU physicians. Crude incidence and time to occurrence of pneumonia were estimated, then both used as end-points for prognosis analysis. 89 pneumoniae were observed: crude incidence was estimated at 8.9% 7-day and 14-day pneumonia rates at 15.8% and 23.4%, respectively. The risk of developing pneumonia increased when either coma, trauma, respiratory support, Apache II > 16 and/or imparied air-way reflexes were present at ICU admission. To predict time to occurrence of pneumonia, only two variables remained significant: the presence of impaired airway reflexes at admission and the use of mechanical ventilation during ICU course. The role of the injury to the respiratory system-with the subsequent need for respiratory support--appears central in determining the risk to acquire pneumonia in ICU. In the future, the predictive value of severity scores during ICU course should be otherwise assessed.
    Intensive Care Medicine 05/1993; 19(5):256-64. DOI:10.1007/BF01690545 · 7.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One hundred and twenty consecutive episodes of nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in 118 nonneutropenic adults admitted to a 1,000-bed teaching hospital were studied in order to investigate the prognosis and risk factors. The overall fatality rate was 36.6 percent. The identification of a "high-risk" microorganism (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative bacilli, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida sp, Aspergillus sp, and episodes of polymicrobial pneumonia), bilateral involvement on chest x-ray examination, the presence of respiratory failure, inappropriate antibiotic therapy, and age older than 60 years or an underlying condition ultimately or rapidly fatal were those factors selected by a stepforward logistic regression analysis as independently worsening the prognosis. A series of variables frequently quoted as predisposing to NP was determined to be either present or absent in the same 120 cases of NP and in an equal number of randomly selected control subjects. After adjusting for confounding, factors significantly predisposing to NP were tracheal intubation, depressed level of consciousness, underlying chronic lung disease, thoracic or upper abdominal surgery, prior episode of a large volume aspiration, and age older than 70 years. Since some of the factors influencing the risk or the prognosis of NP are amenable to medical intervention, a percentage of NP might be prevented and its prognosis can be improved.
    Chest 03/1988; 93(2):318-24. DOI:10.1378/chest.93.2.318 · 7.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies of nosocomial bacterial pneumonia in patients requiring mechanical ventilation have been limited because of the poor reliability of diagnosis procedures in this setting. To determine prognostic and descriptive factors of ventilator-associated (V-A) pneumonia, we prospectively studied 567 patients who had been receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 3 days in our unit. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy using a protected specimen brush (PSB) was performed on each patient suspected of having pneumonia because of the presence of a new pulmonary infiltrate and purulent tracheal secretions. The diagnosis of V-A pneumonia was retained only if PSB specimens yielded greater than 10(3) cfu/ml of at least one microorganism, unless this result was established to be a false positive result on follow-up. V-A pneumonia developed in 49 patients for a total of 52 episodes (9%). The actuarial risk of V-A pneumonia was 6.5% at 10 days, 19% at 20 days, and 28% at 30 days of ventilation. Patients with pneumonia were significantly older (65 versus 57 yr of age, p less than 0.01) and more frequently had severe underlying illnesses (24 versus 10%, p less than 0.01) than did patients without pneumonia. A total of 84 microorganisms (51 gram-negative and 33 gram-positive) were isolated in significant concentrations from PSB specimens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were involved in 31 and 33% of these pneumonias, respectively. Forty percent of all specimens yielded a polymicrobial flora with more than one potential pathogen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    The American review of respiratory disease 05/1989; 139(4):877-84. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm/139.4.877 · 10.19 Impact Factor
Show more