Article

Prolonged Neutrophil Dysfunction after Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Is Related to Hemolysis and Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction.

Department of Immunology and Infection, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 10/2012; 189(11). DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1201028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is not known why people are more susceptible to bacterial infections such as nontyphoid Salmonella during and after a malaria infection, but in mice, malarial hemolysis impairs resistance to nontyphoid Salmonella by impairing the neutrophil oxidative burst. This acquired neutrophil dysfunction is a consequence of induction of the cytoprotective, heme-degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in neutrophil progenitors in bone marrow. In this study, we assessed whether neutrophil dysfunction occurs in humans with malaria and how this relates to hemolysis. We evaluated neutrophil function in 58 Gambian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria [55 (95%) with uncomplicated disease] and examined associations with erythrocyte count, haptoglobin, hemopexin, plasma heme, expression of receptors for heme uptake, and HO-1 induction. Malaria caused the appearance of a dominant population of neutrophils with reduced oxidative burst activity, which gradually normalized over 8 wk of follow-up. The degree of neutrophil impairment correlated significantly with markers of hemolysis and HO-1 induction. HO-1 expression was increased in blood during acute malaria, but at a cellular level HO-1 expression was modulated by changes in surface expression of the haptoglobin receptor (CD163). These findings demonstrate that neutrophil dysfunction occurs in P. falciparum malaria and support the relevance of the mechanistic studies in mice. Furthermore, they suggest the presence of a regulatory pathway to limit HO-1 induction by hemolysis in the context of infection and indicate new targets for therapeutic intervention to abrogate the susceptibility to bacterial infection in the context of hemolysis in humans.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
109 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Innate immune receptors have a key role in immune surveillance by sensing microorganisms and initiating protective immune responses. However, the innate immune system is a classic 'double-edged sword' that can overreact to pathogens, which can have deleterious effects and lead to clinical manifestations. Recent studies have unveiled the complexity of innate immune receptors that function as sensors of Plasmodium spp. in the vertebrate host. This Review highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Plasmodium infection is sensed by different families of innate immune receptors. We also discuss how these events mediate both host resistance to infection and the pathogenesis of malaria.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2014; · 33.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Plasmodium knowlesi was identified as the fifth major malaria parasite in humans. It presents severe clinical symptoms and leads to mortality as a result of hyperparasitemia in a short period of time. This study aimed to improve the current understanding of P. knowlesi and identify potential biomarkers for knowlesi malaria.Methods In the present study, we have employed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-coupled immunoblotting techniques and mass spectrometry to identify novel circulating markers in sera from P. knowlesi-infected patients. Specifically, we have compared serum protein profiles from P. knowlesi-infected patients against those of healthy or P. vivax-infected individuals.ResultsWe identified several immunoreactive proteins in malarial-infected subjects, including alpha-2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG), serotransferrin (TF), complement C3c (C3), hemopexin (HPX), zinc-2-alpha glycoprotein (ZAG1), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), haptoglobin (HAP), and alpha-1-B-glycoprotein (A1BG). However, only TF and HPX displayed enhanced antigenicity and specificity, suggesting that they might represent valid markers for detecting P. knowlesi infection. Additionally, six P. knowlesi-specific antigens were identified (K15, K16, K28, K29, K30, and K38). Moreover, although HAP antigenicity was observed during P. vivax infection, it was undetectable in P. knowlesi-infected subjects.Conclusions We have demonstrated the application of immunoproteomics approach to identify potential candidate biomarkers for knowlesi malaria infection.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2015; 15(1):49. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum malaria and non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia are both major causes of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-infections are expected to occur because of their overlapping geographical distribution, but accumulating evidence indicates that malaria is a risk factor for NTS bacteraemia. A literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of the evidence available for this association, the epidemiology of malaria-NTS co-infection (including the highest risk groups), the underlying mechanisms, and the clinical consequences of this association, in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The burden of malaria-NTS co-infection is highest in young children (especially those less than three years old). Malaria is one of the risk factors for NTS bacteraemia in children, and the risk is higher with severe malaria, especially severe malarial anaemia. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether asymptomatic parasitaemia is a risk factor for NTS bacteraemia. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain how malaria causes susceptibility to NTS, ranging from macrophage dysfunction to increased gut permeability, but the most consistent evidence is that malarial haemolysis creates conditions which favour bacterial growth, by increasing iron availability and by impairing neutrophil function. Few discriminatory clinical features have been described for those with malaria and NTS co-infection, except for a higher risk of anaemia compared to those with either infection alone. Children with malaria and NTS bacteraemia co-infection have higher case fatality rates compared to those with malaria alone, and similar to those with bacteraemia alone. Antimicrobial resistance is becoming widespread in invasive NTS serotypes, making empirical treatment problematic, and increasing the need for prevention measures. Observational studies indicate that interventions to reduce malaria transmission might also have a substantial impact on decreasing the incidence of NTS bacteraemia.
    Malaria Journal 10/2014; 13(1):400. · 3.49 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
27 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014