Systematic Review: Pharmacological Treatment of Tic Disorders - Efficacy of Antipsychotic and Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonist Agents.
ABSTRACT We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials to determine the efficacy of antipsychotic and alpha-2 agonists in the treatment of chronic tic disorders and examine moderators of treatment effect. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significant benefit of antipsychotics compared to placebo (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.80). Stratified subgroup analysis found no significant difference in the efficacy of the 4 antipsychotic agents tested (risperidone, pimozide, haloperidol and ziprasidone). Meta-analysis also demonstrated a benefit of alpha-2 agonists compared to placebo (SMD=0.31 (95% confidence interval CI: 0.15-0.48). Stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression demonstrated a significant moderating effect of co-occurring ADHD. Trials which enrolled subjects with tics and ADHD demonstrated a medium-to-large effect (SMD=0.68 (95%CI: 0.36-1.01) whereas trials that excluded subjects with ADHD demonstrated a small, non-significant benefit (SMD=0.15 (95%CI: -0.06-0.36). Our findings demonstrated significant benefit of both antipsychotics and alpha-2 agonists in treating tics but suggest alpha-2 agonists may have minimal benefit in tic patients without ADHD.
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ABSTRACT: Background Slowness in movement initiation (akinesia) is a cardinal feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is still poorly understood. Notably, akinesia is restored by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) but not fully reversed by current dopaminergic treatments. It was recently suggested that this disorder is of executive nature (related to inhibitory control of response) and of non-dopaminergic origin (possibly noradrenergic). Objective To test the double hypothesis that: 1) the ability to control movement initiation is modified by noradrenergic neurotransmission modulation, and 2) this effect is mediated by the regulation of STN activity. Methods Sixteen STN-DBS PD patients were enrolled in a placebo-controlled study investigating the effects of noradrenergic attenuation by clonidine (∝2-adrenergic receptor agonist). Movement initiation latency was assessed by means of a cue-target reaction time task. Patients, who remained on their chronic dopaminergic medication, were tested on four sessions: two with placebo (ON- or OFF-DBS), and two with a 150 μg oral dose of clonidine (ON- or OFF-DBS). Results In the OFF stimulation condition, patients were locked into a mode of control maintaining inappropriate response inhibition. This dysfunctional executive setting was overcome by STN-DBS. Clonidine, however, was found to impair specifically the ability to release inhibitory control in the ON-DBS state. Conclusions Overall our results suggest an important implication of the noradrenergic system in the pathophysiology of akinesia in PD. Reducing the noradrenergic “tonus” may even block the positive action of STN-DBS on akinesia, suggesting, at least by part, a noradrenergic-dependent STN-DBS efficiency.Brain Stimulation 09/2014; · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue.Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 12/2014; 12(3):235-9.
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ABSTRACT: Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder of childhood onset characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics that fluctuate over time. Tic symptoms often improve by late adolescence, but some children and adults with TS may experience significant tic-related morbidity, including social and family problems, academic difficulties, and pain. When more conservative interventions are not successful, and when certain psychiatric co-morbidities further complicate the clinical profile, treating TS with an atypical antipsychotic medication may be a reasonable second-tier approach. However, the evidence supporting efficacy and safety of the atypical antipsychotics for treatment of tics is still very limited. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated overview of the role of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of TS, with evidence-based guidance on their use. Evidence for efficacy of different typical and atypical antipsychotics for treatment of tics was examined by conducting a systematic, keyword-related search of 'atypical antipsychotics' and 'Tourette's syndrome' in PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA). Four recent treatment consensus publications were also reviewed. This review focused on literature published from 2000 to 2013 and on available randomized controlled trials in TS. Evidence supporting the use of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of TS is limited. There are few randomized medication treatment trials in TS (i.e. risperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone), which employed varying methodologies, thereby restricting meaningful comparisons among studies. Future collaborations among clinical sites with TS expertise employing high-quality study design may better elucidate the role of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of TS.Drugs 07/2014; · 4.13 Impact Factor