CAD-CAM-Assisted Esthetic Facial Surgery
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: This report describes a fully digital workflow for computer-assisted esthetic facial surgery planning and guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using optical scans, virtual surgery is performed according to the 3-dimensional cephalometric results. Next, surgical templates are generated using rapid prototyping. These templates act as a guide during surgery. RESULTS: The workflow has been tested successfully in 4 esthetic facial surgical procedures (rhinoplasty and genioplasty). In addition to surgical assistance, the advantages of the workflow include the possibility of discussing the treatment plan interactively with the patient and comparing and measuring simulation surgery with the actual outcome. As an additional benefit, the appropriate size of the alloplastic implants can be determined preoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Templates could improve special procedures in esthetic facial surgery.
- SourceAvailable from: Nicholas M Wetjen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Surgical correction of craniosynostosis aims to remodel the cranial vault to achieve a morphology approaching that of age-matched norms. However, current surgical technique is highly subjective and based largely on the surgeon's artistic vision in creating a normal head shape. Here, we present our technique and report our experience with the use of virtual surgery using computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) techniques to create a prefabricated template for the planning of osteotomies and the placement of bone segments, to achieve standardised, objective and precise correction of craniosynostosis. Four patients who underwent cranial vault remodelling (CVR; three metopic synostosis and one sagittal synostosis) underwent virtual surgical planning (VSP) preoperatively using CAD/CAM techniques. VSP allows pre-planning of osteotomies to achieve the desired cranial vault shape. Surgical osteotomies and placement of bone segments were performed intra-operatively based on prefabricated templates. All patients demonstrated markedly improved head shape postoperatively. One patient developed a subdural haematoma 6 weeks postoperatively subsequent to a fall where he hit his head. The haematoma was drained and a soft spot was present in that location 3 months postoperatively. The use of virtual surgery and prefabricated cutting guides allows for a more precise and rapid reconstruction. Surgical osteotomies are pre-planned and rapidly performed using a template, and precise placement of calvarial bone segments is achieved without the need for subjective assessment of the desired calvarial shape. In addition, patients and families have a significantly better understanding of the disease process and anticipated surgery preoperatively with the visualisation achieved through virtual surgery. This results in better alignment of hopes and expectations between the parents and surgeons.Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 11/2013; 67(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bjps.2013.11.004 · 1.47 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stereolithographic guidance, increasingly used in orthognathic surgery, has not been completely verified for genioplasty. This study compared the accuracy of manual measurement with that of a stereolithographic guide in vitro. Thirty rapid prototype (RP) mandibular models (15 pairs) were included in the experimental (stereolithographic) and control (manual) groups (15 each). Surgical simulation was performed in the 2 groups by advancing the chin 5 mm and then vertically reducing the chin 5 mm using Mimics software. In the stereolithographic group, genioplasty was performed on mandibular RP models using a 3-dimensionally printed surgical guide based on surgical simulation results. In the control group, it was performed using an osteotomy line drawn according to simulation measurements. For the 2 groups, anterior horizontal transverse error and anterior and posterior vertical errors were compared, as were data from the osteotomized chin segment and the preoperative surgical simulation. Positional difference error was calculated and the differences were evaluated with t tests. For advancement genioplasty, the absolute anterior transverse error value was 0.47 ± 0.35 (mean ± standard deviation) with the stereolithographic guide, less than with the manual method (0.77 ± 0.45; P = .001). For reduction genioplasty, the absolute anterior vertical error value was 0.27 ± 0.23 mm with the stereolithographic guide versus 0.58 ± 0.49 mm with the manual method (P < .001). Use of a stereolithographic surgical guide increased accuracy, but the difference in mean error values between methods was only approximately 0.3 mm. The superior accuracy may not be compelling in favor of stereolithographic surgical guides.Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 03/2014; 72(10). DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2014.03.002 · 1.28 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The complex three-dimensional anatomy of the craniofacial skeleton creates a formidable challenge for surgical reconstruction. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technology have created increasing applications for virtual surgical planning in craniofacial surgery, such as preoperative planning, fabrication of cutting guides, and stereolithographic models and fabrication of custom implants. In this review, the authors describe current and evolving uses of virtual surgical planning in craniofacial surgery.Seminars in Plastic Surgery 08/2014; 28(3):150-8. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1384811