Diagnosis, Evaluation and Follow-Up of Asymptomatic Microhematuria (AMH) in Adults: AUA Guideline
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: The purpose of this guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up of asymptomatic microhematuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review using the MEDLINE® database was conducted to identify peer reviewed publications relevant to the definition, diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up for AMH. The review yielded 191 evidence-based articles, and these publications were used to create the majority of the guideline statements. There was insufficient evidence-based data for certain concepts; therefore, clinical principles and consensus expert opinions were used for portions of the guideline statements. RESULTS: Guideline statements are provided for diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up. The panel identified multiphasic computed tomography as the preferred imaging technique and developed guideline statements for persistent or recurrent AMH as well as follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: AMH is only diagnosed by microscopy; a dipstick reading suggestive of hematuria should not lead to imaging or further investigation without confirmation of three or greater red blood cells per high power field. The evaluation and follow-up algorithm and guidelines provide a systematic approach to the patient with AMH. All patients 35 years or older should undergo cystoscopy, and upper urinary tract imaging is indicated in all adults with AMH in the absence of known benign causation. The imaging modalities and physical evaluation techniques are evolving, and these guidelines will need to be updated as the effectiveness of these become available. Please visit the AUA website at http://www.auanet.org/content/media/asymptomatic_microhematuria_guideline.pdf to view this guideline in its entirety.
SourceAvailable from: Rena D Malik[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The management of urinary retention in the elderly female can present a challenging conundrum for primary care physicians, geriatricians, and urologists. It is often difficult to diagnose due to concomitant comorbidities and potential cognitive impairments. Evaluation should include a comprehensive history and physical examination, post-void residual, and urinalysis with consideration given to urodynamic testing in select patients. Management varies from conservative to invasive and should be tailored to the individual patient. Primary goals of care include symptom reduction, prevention of urinary tract infection, and upper tract deterioration. This presents an up-to-date review of the presentation, diagnosis, and management options available for elderly women with urinary retention.Current Urology Reports 11/2014; 15(11):454. DOI:10.1007/s11934-014-0454-x
Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada 12/2014; 8(11-12). DOI:10.5489/cuaj.2577 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Discolored urine is a common reason for office visits to a primary care physician and urology referral. Early differentiation of the type or cause of discolored urine is necessary for accurate diagnosis and prompt management. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal disorder caused by acquired somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene on the X- chromosome of hemopoietic stem cells and leads to deficiency of surface membrane anchor proteins. The deficiency of these proteins leads to an increased risk of hemolysis of erythrocytes and structural damage of platelets, resulting in a clinical syndrome characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and venous thrombosis. Patients with this clinical syndrome present with paroxysms of hemolysis, causing hemoglobinuria manifesting as discolored urine. This can be easily confused with other common causes of discolored urine and result in extensive urologic work-up. Three commonly confused entities of discolored urine include hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria. Specific characteristics in a dipstick test or urinalysis can guide differentiation of these three causes of discolored urine. This article begins with a case summary of a woman presenting with cranberry-colored urine and a final delayed diagnosis of paryxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Her hemoglobinuria was misdiagnosed as hematuria, leading to extensive urologic work-up. The article also gives an overview of the approach to diagnosing and treating discolored urine.