Article

Small-molecule inhibition of HIV-1 Vif

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.
Nature Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 39.08). 10/2008; 26(10):1187-92. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1496
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The HIV-1 protein Vif, essential for in vivo viral replication, targets the human DNA-editing enzyme, APOBEC3G (A3G), which inhibits replication of retroviruses and hepatitis B virus. As Vif has no known cellular homologs, it is an attractive, yet unrealized, target for antiviral intervention. Although zinc chelation inhibits Vif and enhances viral sensitivity to A3G, this effect is unrelated to the interaction of Vif with A3G. We identify a small molecule, RN-18, that antagonizes Vif function and inhibits HIV-1 replication only in the presence of A3G. RN-18 increases cellular A3G levels in a Vif-dependent manner and increases A3G incorporation into virions without inhibiting general proteasome-mediated protein degradation. RN-18 enhances Vif degradation only in the presence of A3G, reduces viral infectivity by increasing A3G incorporation into virions and enhances cytidine deamination of the viral genome. These results demonstrate that the HIV-1 Vif-A3G axis is a valid target for developing small molecule-based new therapies for HIV infection or for enhancing innate immunity against viruses.

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    ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 protein Vif is essential for in vivo viral replication that targets the human DNA-editing enzyme, APOBEC3G (A3G), which inhibits replication of retroviruses. The Vif-A3G interactions are believed to be important targets for antiviral drug development. Since the interactions of A3G and Vif evade the ubiquitination pathways in human host, the viral replication precedes which otherwise spreads infection. In this study, two potent Vif inhibitors RN 18 and VEC5 have been evaluated for their inhibitory potential employing ligand receptor and protein-protein interactions studies. VEC 5 showed better interaction with Vif than RN18. Predicted data show that VEC5 bound Vif and RN18 bound Vif showed diminished interaction to A3G compared to inhibitor unbound Vif. However, this should be further validated using in vitro studies.
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    ABSTRACT: Currently available antiviral drugs target the pol-encoded retroviral enzymes or integrases, in addition, inhibitors that target HIV-1 envelope-receptor interactions have also been recently approved. Recent understanding of the interactions between HIV-1 and host restriction factors has provided fresh avenues for development of novel antiviral drugs. For example, viral infectivity factor (Vif) now surfaced as an important therapeutic target in treatment of HIV infection. Vif suppresses A3G antiviral activity by targeting these proteins for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In the present study we analyzed the inhibitory potential of VEC5 and RN18 to inhibit the Vif-A3G interaction through protein- protein docking studies. Perusal of the study showed that, VEC5 and RN18 though inhibits the interaction however showed sub optimal potential. To overcome this set back, we identified 35 structural analogues of VEC5 and 18 analogues of RN18 through virtual screening approach. Analogue with PubCID 71624757 and 55358204 (AKOS006479723) -structurally akin to VEC5 and RN18 respectively showed much appreciable interaction than their respective parent compound. Evident from Vif-A3G; protein - protein docking studies, analogue PubCID 71624757 demonstrated 1.08 folds better inhibitory potential than its parent compound VEC5 while analogue PubCID 55358204 was 1.15 folds better than RN18. Further these analogues passed drug likeness filters and predicted to be non- toxic. We expect these analogues can be put to pharmacodynamic studies that can pave way the breakthrough in HIV therapeutics.
    Current topics in medicinal chemistry 01/2015; 15(1):65 - 72. DOI:10.2174/1568026615666150112114337 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Currently available antiviral drugs target the pol-encoded retroviral enzymes or integrases, in addition, inhibitors that target HIV-1 envelope-receptor interactions have also been recently approved. Recent understanding of the interactions between HIV-1 and host restriction factors has provided fresh avenues for development of novel antiviral drugs. For example, viral infectivity factor (Vif) now surfaced as an important therapeutic target in treatment of HIV infection. Vif suppresses A3G antiviral activity by targeting these proteins for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In the present study we analyzed the inhibitory potential VEC5 and RN18 to inhibit the Vif-A3G interaction through protein- protein docking studies. Perusal of the study showed that, VEC5 and RN18 though inhibits the interaction however showed sub optimal potential. To overcome this set back, we identified 35 structural analogues to VEC5 and 18 analogues to RN18 through virtual screening approach. Analogue with PubCID 71624757 and 55358204 (AKOS006479723) -structurally akin to VEC5 and RN18 respectively showed much appreciable interaction than their respective parent compound. Evident from vif-A3G ; protein - protein docking studies, analogue PubCID 71624757 demonstrated 1.08 folds better inhibitory potential than its parent compound VEC5 while analogue PubCID 55358204 was 1.15 folds better than RN18. Further these analogues passed drug likeness filters and predicted to be non- toxic. We expect these analogues can be put to pharmacodynamic studies that can pave way the breakthrough in HIV therapeutics.

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