MAGE-C2 Promotes Growth and Tumorigenicity of Melanoma Cells, Phosphorylation of KAP1, and DNA Damage Repair

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology (Impact Factor: 6.37). 10/2012; 133(3). DOI: 10.1038/jid.2012.355
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Melanoma-associated antigen-encoding (MAGE) genes are expressed in melanoma and other cancers but not in normal somatic cells. MAGE expression is associated with aggressive tumor growth, poor clinical outcome, and resistance to chemotherapy, but the mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we show that downregulation of MAGE-C2 in A375 melanoma cells and low-passage cultures from human metastatic melanomas (MRA cells) results in increased apoptosis and decreased growth of tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice. Previously, we showed that MAGE-C2 binds KAP1, a scaffolding protein that regulates DNA repair. Phosphorylation of KAP1-Serine 824 (Ser824) by ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is necessary for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); now we show that MAGE-C2 knockdown reduces, whereas MAGE-C2 overexpression increases, ATM kinase-dependent phosphorylation of KAP1-Ser824. We demonstrate that MAGE-C2 increases co-precipitation of KAP1 with ATM and that binding of MAGE-C2 to KAP1 is necessary for increased KAP1-Ser824 phosphorylation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of MAGE-C2 enhances repair of I-SceI endonuclease-induced DSBs in U-2OS cells. As phosphorylation of KAP1-Ser824 facilitates relaxation of heterochromatin, which is necessary for DNA repair and cellular proliferation, our results suggest that MAGE-C2 can promote tumor growth by phosphorylation of KAP1-Ser824 and by enhancement of DNA damage repair.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 25 October 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.355.

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