Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet is associated with a lower risk for mortality, cognitive decline, and dementia. Whether adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet protects against age-related frailty is unclear. Therefore, our objective was to examine the association between a Mediterranean-style diet with the risk of frailty in community-dwelling older persons. We conducted longitudinal analyses using data from 690 community-living persons (≥65 y) who were randomly selected from a population registry in Tuscany, Italy. Participants of the Invecchiare in Chianti study of aging completed the baseline examination in 1998-2000 and were re-examined at least once over 6 y. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (scored 0-9, modeled categorically as ≤3, 4-5, and ≥6) was computed from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition FFQ previously validated in this cohort. Frailty was defined as having at least 2 of the following criteria: poor muscle strength, feeling of exhaustion, low walking speed, and low physical activity. After a 6-y follow-up, higher adherence (score ≥6) to a Mediterranean-style diet was associated with lower odds of developing frailty [OR = 0.30 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.66)] compared with those with lower adherence (score ≤3). A higher adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet at baseline was also associated with a lower risk of low physical activity (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.96) and low walking speed [OR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.86)] but not with feelings of exhaustion and poor muscle strength. In community-dwelling older adults, higher adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was inversely associated with the development of frailty.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Interactions between genetic (genome) and environmental factors (epigenome) operate during a person's entire lifespan. The aging process is associated with several cellular and organic functional alterations that, at the end, cause multi-organic cell failure. Epigenetic mechanisms of aging are modifiable by appropriate preventive actions mediated by sirtuins, caloric input, diet components, adipose tissue-related inflammatory reactions, and physical activity. The Mediterranean lifestyle has been for many millennia a daily habit for people in Western civilizations living around the Mediterranean sea who worked intensively and survived with very few seasonal foods. A high adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with low mortality (higher longevity) and reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, including cancer, the metabolic syndrome, depression and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Reports indicate that some dietary components, such as olive oil, antioxidants, omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated acids, polyphenols and flavonoids, mediate beneficial anti-aging effects (anti-chronic diseases and increased longevity). Equally, physical activity displays a positive effect, producing caloric consumption and regulation of adipose and pancreatic function. The predictive strength of some food patterns may be a way of developing recommendations for food and health policies. This paper will discuss several ways of improving health during mid-life, focusing on certain groups of functional foods and healthy habits which may reduce or prevent age-related chronic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last decades nutraceuticals have entered the health market as an easy and attractive means of preventing diseases. These products are of interest for an increasingly health-concerned society and may be especially relevant for preventing or delaying a number of age-related diseases, i.e. arthritis, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, cataracts, brain disorders, etc. Nutraceuticals are marketed in a variety of forms, composition and potential applications which have made their definition ambiguous and their use uncontrolled and poorly funded. Although epidemiological, animal and in vitro studies have given evidence of the potential benefits of some of these nutraceuticals or of their components, definitive proof of their effects in appropriate human clinical trials is still lacking in most cases, more critically among people above 65 years of age. We cover the well-established nutraceuticals (polyvitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, etc.) and will focus on many other 'novel' commercial nutraceuticals where the scientific evidence is more limited (food extracts, polyphenols, carotenoids, etc.). Solid scientific evidence has been reported only for a few nutraceuticals, which have some health claims approved by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Further well-designed trials are needed to improve the current knowledge on the health benefits of nutraceuticals in the elderly. Overall, there are some facts, a lot of fiction and many gaps in the knowledge of nutraceutical benefits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incidence rates of cognitive impairment and dementia are rising with the ageing population. Meanwhile, the limited success of current treatments has led to a search for early markers of dementia which could predict future progression or improve quality of life for those already suffering from the disease. One focus has been on the correlation between physical and cognitive measures with an increasing interest in the association between frailty and cognitive decline. Frailty is an age-related syndrome described as the decreased ability of an organism to respond to stressors. A number of epidemiological studies have reported that frailty increases the risk of future cognitive decline and that cognitive impairment increases the risk of frailty suggesting that cognition and frailty interact within a cycle of decline associated with ageing. This paper reviews the evidence for an association between frailty and cognitive impairment and outlines some of the mechanisms that potentially underpin this relationship from brain neuropathology and hormonal dysregulation to cardiovascular risk and psychological factors.
Ageing research reviews 07/2013; 12(4). DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2013.06.004 · 4.94 Impact Factor
M Maynar, M C Robles, D Muñoz, J L Álvarez, F J Grijota, M J Caballero,
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