High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. p16 immunohistochemical analysis and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcome data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high-risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV-positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (P<0.0001). The HPV-related carcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean, 54 y). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high-risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. Although nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma. The distinctiveness of these HPV-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract with respect to risk factors, clinical behavior, and response to therapy remains to be clarified.
"Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a possible risk factor for small cell carcinoma in the sinonasal tract . High-risk positivity for HPV infection was found in 1 out of 6 cases of sinonasal small cell carcinoma in one retrospective study by Bishop et al.  and was seen in our patient as well. However, it is unclear whether HPV has any role in the pathogenesis of sinonasal small cell lung cancer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses is an extremely rare and aggressive neoplasm. Despite aggressive management, the tumor carries a poor prognosis, with a high risk of local recurrence or distant metastases. The management strategy is based on that for pulmonary small cell cancer and includes platinum-based chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy. We are reporting a case of an 89-year-old female patient diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of right-sided ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. The tumor was found to have invaded the right orbit and anterior cranial fossa. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes and bone were also found. Due to the extended stage and poor prognosis of the patient, the management plan is palliative chemoradiotherapy.
Case Reports in Medicine 06/2014; 2014:874719. DOI:10.1155/2014/874719
"However, there is evidence for a 2–3 fold increase in sinonasal SCC risk from tobacco smoking67. Finally, human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 may be implicated in the development of sinonasal SCC, mainly in those cases with malignant transformation of inverted papillomas which occurs in 5 to 15% cases89. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are rare tumors, etiologically related to occupational exposure to wood and leather dust. In spite of surgical and radiotherapeutic advances, the 5 year survival is still 30-50%. Therefore, alternative treatment options are needed. We report the establishment and characterization of six unique human sinonasal SCC cell lines, named SCCNC1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7. In vitro growth and invasion characteristics were evaluated and genetic profiles were compared to those of the original primary tumors. The population doubling times ranged from 21 to 34 hours. Cell lines SCCNC2 and 7 were highly invasive in matrigel. Five cell lines carried a high number of copy number alterations, including amplifications and homozygous deletions, while one showed only three abnormalities. Sequence analysis revealed three cell lines with TP53 mutation and none with KRAS or BRAF. Overexpression of p53 was observed in five, and of EGFR in four cell lines. None of the cell lines showed strong immunopositivity of p16 or presence of human papilloma virus. In conclusion, we have created six new cell lines that are clinically and genetically representative of sinonasal SCC and that will be a useful tool for the preclinical testing of new therapeutic agents.
"21–30% of cancers, and HPV 16 is the most detected type. Final conclusions regarding the effects of HPV on the clinical course and prognosis cannot be made due to insufficient experience collected so far . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of human papilloma viruses (HPV) in malignant and nonmalignant ENT diseases and the corresponding epidemiological burden has been widely described. International head and neck oncology community discussed growing evidence that oral HPV infection contributes to the risk of oro-pharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) and recommended HPV testing as a part of the work up for patients with OPC. Polish Society of ENT Head Neck Surgery and National Chamber of Laboratory Diagnosticians have worked together to define the minimum requirements for assigning a diagnosis of HPV-related conditions and testing strategy that include HPV specific tests in our country. This paper briefly frames the literature information concerning low risk (LR) and high risk (HR) HPV, reviews the epidemiology, general guidance on the most appropriate biomarkers for clinical assessment of HPV. The definition of HPV-related cancer was presented. The article is aiming to highlight some of major issues for the clinician dealing with patients with HPV-related morbidities and to introduce the diagnostic algorithm in Poland.
Otolaryngologia polska. The Polish otolaryngology 05/2013; 67(3):113-134. DOI:10.1016/j.otpol.2013.01.003
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