[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No evidence-based recommendations exist concerning what dietary macronutrient composition optimizes weight loss during lactation while maintaining milk production.
The study was designed to test the following hypotheses: compared with a reduced-calorie, high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet, an isonitrogenous, isocaloric high-fat (H-F) diet will decrease milk production and carbohydrate oxidation, increase gluconeogenesis and hexoneogenesis, and not affect energy balance.
Seven healthy lactating mothers and their infants were studied on 2 occasions in random order for 8 d separated by 1-2 wk. On one occasion, the subjects received the H-F (30% of energy as carbohydrate and 55% as fat) diet and on the other occasion received the H-CHO (60% of energy as carbohydrate and 25% as fat) diet. Milk production, infant intakes, and substrate and hormone concentrations were measured. Glucose rates of appearance, production, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and hexoneogenesis were measured by using stable-isotope gas chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques, and energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured by using indirect calorimetry.
Milk volume, lactose, and protein concentrations were unaffected. Milk fat, energy, and infant intakes were higher (P < 0.05) during the H-F diet. Neither gluconeogenesis nor hexoneogenesis was different. During the H-F diet, energy expenditure and fat and protein oxidation rates were higher (P < 0.05), and the daily energy balance deficit was greater (P < 0.01).
Milk fat, energy output, and energy expenditure were higher during the H-F diet, which resulted in a greater negative energy balance. The lactating mothers adapted to a low carbohydrate intake by decreasing carbohydrate oxidation. Additional studies are warranted to determine whether a hypocaloric H-F diet might promote weight loss to a greater extent than the H-CHO diet while maintaining milk production.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 05/2009; 89(6):1821-7. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26877 · 6.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Islet-cell tumours are neuroendocrine tumours that arise from the endocrine pancreas. They may be associated with a variety of syndromes and are subclassified into functioning and non-functioning tumours. They range from benign to malignant. They demonstrate characteristic features when imaged with both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sensitivity and specificity, as well as detection of extrapancreatic extension, are generally superior with MRI. However, CT is currently still more readily available to patients. Multiphase, post-contrast series are commended for the evaluation of islet-cell tumours with either modality.
Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 07/2005; 19(2):195-211. DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2004.11.013 · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forearm glucose uptake (FGU) and other metabolic responses were studied in six normal men for three hours after a 75-g oral glucose load and a mixed meal containing 75 g carbohydrate. After the meal the rise in arterial glucose levels was considerably less than that following the oral glucose load but the overall insulin responses from 0 to 180 minutes were not statistically different. Although the initial rise in FGU was more gradual after the meal, the subsequent elevation was more sustained and, at the termination of the study, exceeded significantly that seen after the oral glucose load. The rise in GIP levels during the first hour was similar after the meal and the oral glucose load, but thereafter concentrations following the oral glucose load fell while those after the meal continued to rise. When the incremental area (delta) is used as the index of response, the results show that while the glucose response (delta G) after the meal (19.1 +/- 5.3 units) was only 26% of that after oral glucose loading (72.7 +/- 7.0 units), the corresponding increase in FGU (delta FGU) reached 62% (55.0 +/- 12.8 units after the meal, 89.2 +/- 20.0 units after the oral glucose load). Thus, the increase in peripheral glucose uptake relative to the glycemic response (delta FGU/delta G) was significantly greater after the meal than following the oral glucose load alone (P less than 0.05). In conclusion, relative to the rise in arterial glucose levels, peripheral glucose uptake is greater after a meal than after glucose loading with an equivalent carbohydrate challenge. Furthermore, the present data support previous studies emphasizing the failure of GIP alone to explain the entero insular axis.
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