Varicella-zoster virus in children immunized with the varicella vaccine

National Capitol Consortium, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Cutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner (Impact Factor: 0.72). 09/2012; 90(3):114-6.
Source: PubMed


We present the case of a 4-year-old immunocompetent girl with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that occurred 45 months after a single dose of the varicella vaccine. Varicella-zoster virus is rare in children, particularly those who have received the varicella vaccine. Our case illustrates the need for a continued high index of suspicion, even among vaccinated children with herpetiform rashes, for varicella reactivation or reinfection.

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    ABSTRACT: Herpes zoster is uncommon in the pediatric population. We report a case of herpes zoster in a 2-year-old boy who received the live attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccination at his 12-month pediatric visit. The child was treated with acyclovir and recovered without complications.
    Dermatology online journal 01/2014; 20(1):21259.
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    B Silver · H Zhu ·
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    ABSTRACT: doi: 10.2217/fvl.14.43
    Future Virology 07/2014; 9(7-7):617-620. DOI:10.2217/fvl.14.43 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). After primary infection, the virus remains latent in sensory ganglia, and reactivates upon weakening of the cellular immune system due to various conditions, erupting from sensory neurons and infecting the corresponding skin tissue. The current varicella vaccine (v-Oka) is highly attenuated in the skin, yet retains its neurovirulence and may reactivate and damage sensory neurons. The reactivation is sometimes associated with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), a severe pain along the affected sensory nerves that can linger for years, even after the herpetic rash resolves. In addition to the older population that develops a secondary infection resulting in herpes zoster, childhood breakthrough herpes zoster affects a small population of vaccinated children. There is a great need for a neuro-attenuated vaccine that would prevent not only the varicella manifestation, but, more importantly, any establishment of latency, and therefore herpes zoster. The development of a genetically-defined live-attenuated VZV vaccine that prevents neuronal and latent infection, in addition to primary varicella, is imperative for eventual eradication of VZV, and, if fully understood, has vast implications for many related herpesviruses and other viruses with similar pathogenic mechanisms.
    Virologica Sinica 10/2014; 29(5-5):265-273. DOI:10.1007/s12250-014-3516-9

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