Risk of cardiac events in patients with asthma and long-QT syndrome treated with beta(2) agonists.
ABSTRACT The clinical course and risk factors associated with beta(2)-agonist therapy for asthma have not been investigated previously in patients with the long-QT syndrome (LQTS). The risk of a first LQTS-related cardiac event due to beta(2)-agonist therapy was examined in 3,287 patients enrolled in the International LQTS Registry with QTc > or = 450 ms. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the independent contribution of clinical factors for first cardiac events (syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, or sudden death) from birth through age 40. Time-dependent beta(2)-agonist therapy for asthma was associated with an increased risk for cardiac events (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 3.15, p = 0.003) after adjustment for relevant covariates including time-dependent beta-blocker use, gender, QTc, and history of asthma. This risk was augmented within the first year after the initiation of beta(2)-agonist therapy (HR = 3.53, p = 0.006). The combined use of beta(2)-agonist therapy and anti-inflammatory steroids was associated with an elevated risk for cardiac events (HR = 3.66, p <0.01); beta-blocker therapy was associated with a reduction in cardiac events in those using beta(2) agonists (HR = 0.14, p = 0.05). In conclusion, beta(2)-agonist therapy was associated with an increased risk for cardiac events in patients with asthma with LQTS, and this risk was diminished in patients receiving beta blockers.
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ABSTRACT: Asthma is a common comorbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD) with a reported prevalence of 30-70%. The high frequency of asthma in this population cannot be attributed to genetic predisposition alone, and likely reflects in part, the contribution of overlapping mechanisms shared between these otherwise distinct disorders. There is accumulating evidence that dysregulated arginine metabolism and in particular, elevated arginase activity contributes to pulmonary complications in SCD. Derangements of arginine metabolism are also emerging as newly appreciated mechanism in both asthma and pulmonary hypertension independent of SCD. Patients with SCD may potentially be at risk for an asthma-like condition triggered or worsened by hemolysis-driven release of erythrocyte arginase and low nitric oxide bioavailability, in addition to classic familial asthma. Mechanisms that contributed to asthma are complex and multifactorial, influenced by genetic polymorphisms as well as environmental and infectious triggers. Given the association of asthma with inflammation, oxidative stress and hypoxemia, factors known to contribute to a vasculopathy in SCD, and the consequences of these factors on sickle erythrocytes, comorbid asthma would likely contribute to a vicious cycle of sickling and subsequent complications of SCD. Indeed a growing body of evidence documents what should come as no surprise: Asthma in SCD is associated with acute chest syndrome, stroke, pulmonary hypertension, and early mortality, and should therefore be aggressively managed based on established National Institutes of Health Guidelines for asthma management. Barriers to appropriate asthma management in SCD are discussed as well as strategies to overcome these obstacles in order to provide optimal care.American Journal of Hematology 01/2009; 84(4):234-41. · 4.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To review issues related to asthma in sickle cell disease and management strategies. Data Source. A systematic review of pertinent original research publications, reviews, and editorials was undertaken using MEDLlNE, the Cochrane Library databases, and CINAHL from 1947 to November 2010. Search terms were [asthma] and [sickle cell disease]. Additional publications considered relevant to the sickle cell disease population of patients were identified; search terms included [sickle cell disease] combined with [acetaminophen], [pain medications], [vitamin D], [beta agonists], [exhaled nitric oxide], and [corticosteroids]. Results. The reported prevalence of asthma in children with sickle cell disease varies from 2% to approximately 50%. Having asthma increases the risk for developing acute chest syndrome , death, or painful episodes compared to having sickle cell disease without asthma. Asthma and sickle cell may be linked by impaired nitric oxide regulation, excessive production of leukotrienes, insufficient levels of Vitamin D, and exposure to acetaminophen in early life. Treatment of sickle cell patients includes using commonly prescribed asthma medications; specific considerations are suggested to ensure safety in the sickle cell population. Conclusion. Prospective controlled trials of drug treatment for asthma in patients who have both sickle cell disease and asthma are urgently needed.Anemia 01/2011; 2011:740235.
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ABSTRACT: Beta(2)-adrenoceptor (beta(2)-AR) agonists are very effective bronchodilators and play a major role in every stage of asthma management. However, their chronic, regular use is associated with detrimental effects including an increase in asthma-related deaths. Conversely, recent data suggest that certain beta-blockers, specifically beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) inverse agonists, may be useful in the chronic treatment of asthma. Here we review the data for this observation and the signaling pathways that may be involved. The data suggest that beta(2)-AR signaling is required to produce maximal airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, and the signaling pathway responsible for these effects is likely the non-canonical beta-arrestin-2 pathway. Therefore, beta-AR inverse agonists may produce their beneficial chronic effects by inhibiting constitutive or ligand-induced activation of this pathway. Both lung parenchymal and hematopoietic cells appear to be involved in mediating the beneficial effects of beta-AR inverse agonists.Current Opinion in Pharmacology 06/2010; 10(3):254-9. · 5.44 Impact Factor