[ "Department of Biological Sciences, and Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, 119 Foster Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA"]; [ ""]
The Auk (Impact Factor: 2.4). 01/2009; DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2002)119[0621:MSATRO]2.0.CO;2

ABSTRACT Se reconstruyó la filogenia de todas las especies conocidas y de muchas de las subespecies de Xiphorhynchus (Dendrocolaptidae) para evaluar los límites de las especies en este género taxonómicamente complejo y para investigar el rol del ecotono entre “várzea” (bosque de inundación) y “terra-firme” (bosque de tierras altas) del Amazonas en su diversificación. Las filogenias fueron inferidas a partir de 2,430 pares de bases de los genes de ADN mitocondrial ND2, ND3 y citocromo b. Todas las estimaciones filogenéticas avalaron la monofilia de todas las especies vivientes de Xiphorhynchus, con excepción del par de especies hermanas X. picus y X. kienerii. Se encontró fuerte respaldo para incluir a Lepidocolaptes fuscus en Xiphorhynchus, confirmando estudios moleculares y anatómicos previos. Los niveles de divergencia en las secuencias entre algunas subespecies de X. guttatus, X. ocellatus y X. spixii alcanzaron o excedieron aquellos encontrados entre especies biológicas cercanamente emparentadas de Xiphorhynchus. Los altos niveles de diferenciación en las secuencias y la parafilia de algunas especies de Xiphorhynchus indicaron que los siguientes taxones deberían ser reconocidos como especies: X. guttatoides, X. chunchotambo y X. elegans. Todas las especies de Xiphorhynchus restringidas a las áreas de bosque de terra-firme de las tierras bajas del Amazonas formaron un grupo monofilético fuertemente respaldado, mientras que las especies restringidas a bosques de várzea aparecieron en la base del clado que contenía a aquellas encontradas en una amplia variedad de hábitats (X. obsoletus) o pertenecieron a un linaje separado que probablemente pueda ser considerado como un género separado (X. kienerii). Estos resultados falsifican la relación de hermandad esperada entre las especies de várzea y terra-firme que se esperaría si el ecotono de várzea y terra-firme hubiera jugado un rol importante en la diferenciación entre poblaciones y en la especiación de Xiphorhynchus. En cambio, las estimaciones filogenéticas sugirieron que la especialización de hábitat de várzea y terra-firme evolucionó temprano en la historia evolutiva de Xiphorhynchus y que las diferenciaciones subsecuentes ocurrieron principalmente en el hábitat de terra-firme.

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    ABSTRACT: The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys are urgently needed to avoid underestimating tropical diversity, and the use of mtDNA markers can be instrumental in identifying and prioritizing taxa for species discovery.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40541. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The open vegetation corridor of South America is a region dominated by savanna biomes. It contains forests (i.e. riverine forests) that may act as corridors for rainforest specialists between the open vegetation corridor and its neighbouring biomes (i.e. the Amazonian and Atlantic forests). A prediction for this scenario is that populations of rainforest specialists in the open vegetation corridor and in the forested biomes show no significant genetic divergence. We addressed this hypothesis by studying plumage and genetic variation of the Planalto woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes platyrostris Spix (1824) (Aves: Furnariidae), a forest specialist that occurs in both open habitat and in the Atlantic forest. The study questions were: (1) is there any evidence of genetic continuity between populations of the open habitat and the Atlantic forest and (2) is plumage variation congruent with patterns of neutral genetic structure or with ecological factors related to habitat type? We used cytochrome b and mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to show that D. platyrostris is monophyletic and presents substantial intraspecific differentiation. We found two areas of plumage stability: one associated with Cerrado and the other associated with southern Atlantic Forest. Multiple Mantel tests showed that most of the plumage variation followed the transition of habitats but not phylogeographical gaps, suggesting that selection may be related to the evolution of the plumage of the species. The results were not compatible with the idea that forest specialists in the open vegetation corridor and in the Atlantic forest are linked at the population level because birds from each region were not part of the same genetic unit. Divergence in the presence of gene flow across the ecotone between both regions might explain our results. Also, our findings indicate that the southern Atlantic forest may have been significantly affected by Pleistocene climatic alteration, although such events did not cause local extinction of most taxa, as occurred in other regions of the globe where forests were significantly affected by global glaciations. Finally, our results neither support plumage stability areas, nor subspecies as full species. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 103, 801–820.
    Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 06/2011; 103(4):801 - 820. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary.—Without adequate knowledge of species distributions and life-history characteristics it is impossible to undertake robust analyses to answer even basic biogeographical questions or undertake evidence-based conservation planning. We present a follow-up to the first avifaunal inventory from Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Zimmer et al. 1997) following an additional 17 years of field work. We add 124 species to the regional list and clarify the status of others. Many of the species reported here are poorly known, therefore we present data on their status and distribution, both at Alta Floresta and other Amazonian localities.
    Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club (ISSN 0007-1595). 09/2013; 133(3):178-239.

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