Molecular Systematics and the Role of the "Várzea"-"Terra-Firme" Ecotone in the Diversification of Xiphorhynchus Woodcreepers (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae)

[ "Department of Biological Sciences, and Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, 119 Foster Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA"]
The Auk (Impact Factor: 1.86). 01/2009; 119(Jul 2002):621-640. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2002)119[0621:MSATRO]2.0.CO;2


Se reconstruyó la filogenia de todas las especies conocidas y de muchas de las subespecies de Xiphorhynchus (Dendrocolaptidae) para evaluar los límites de las especies en este género taxonómicamente complejo y para investigar el rol del ecotono entre “várzea” (bosque de inundación) y “terra-firme” (bosque de tierras altas) del Amazonas en su diversificación. Las filogenias fueron inferidas a partir de 2,430 pares de bases de los genes de ADN mitocondrial ND2, ND3 y citocromo b. Todas las estimaciones filogenéticas avalaron la monofilia de todas las especies vivientes de Xiphorhynchus, con excepción del par de especies hermanas X. picus y X. kienerii. Se encontró fuerte respaldo para incluir a Lepidocolaptes fuscus en Xiphorhynchus, confirmando estudios moleculares y anatómicos previos. Los niveles de divergencia en las secuencias entre algunas subespecies de X. guttatus, X. ocellatus y X. spixii alcanzaron o excedieron aquellos encontrados entre especies biológicas cercanamente emparentadas de Xiphorhynchus. Los altos niveles de diferenciación en las secuencias y la parafilia de algunas especies de Xiphorhynchus indicaron que los siguientes taxones deberían ser reconocidos como especies: X. guttatoides, X. chunchotambo y X. elegans. Todas las especies de Xiphorhynchus restringidas a las áreas de bosque de terra-firme de las tierras bajas del Amazonas formaron un grupo monofilético fuertemente respaldado, mientras que las especies restringidas a bosques de várzea aparecieron en la base del clado que contenía a aquellas encontradas en una amplia variedad de hábitats (X. obsoletus) o pertenecieron a un linaje separado que probablemente pueda ser considerado como un género separado (X. kienerii). Estos resultados falsifican la relación de hermandad esperada entre las especies de várzea y terra-firme que se esperaría si el ecotono de várzea y terra-firme hubiera jugado un rol importante en la diferenciación entre poblaciones y en la especiación de Xiphorhynchus. En cambio, las estimaciones filogenéticas sugirieron que la especialización de hábitat de várzea y terra-firme evolucionó temprano en la historia evolutiva de Xiphorhynchus y que las diferenciaciones subsecuentes ocurrieron principalmente en el hábitat de terra-firme.

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Available from: Alexandre Aleixo, Sep 29, 2015
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    • "Cocoa Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus susurrans includes all trans- Andean populations/taxa of the X guttatus/susurrans complex, but unfortunately, so far no in-depth phylogeographic analysis has been conducted involving South American populations of this species (the so called ''susurrans'' group, see Marantz et al., 2003). Split from X. guttatus originally based on vocal and body size differences (Willis, 1983), previous molecular work involving mitochondrial (Aleixo, 2002) as well as multi-locus (Derryberry et al., 2011) datasets have also consistently uncovered the evolutionary independence of the trans-Andean lineage with respect to the cis-Andean ones, supporting the treatment of at least the Central American populations of X. susurrans as an independent species. However, future studies should test the monophyly of both Central and South American populations of X. susurrans (which is assumed based on vocal differences), with respect to those distributed parapatrically in Amazonia belonging to C1 (X. "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Xiphorhynchus is a species rich avian group widely distributed in Neotropical forests of Central and South America. Although recent molecular studies have improved our understanding of the spatial patterns of genetic diversity in some species of this genus, most are still poorly known, including their taxonomy. Here, we address the historical diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the X. guttatus / susurrans complex, using data from two mitochondrial (cyt b and ND2) and one nuclear (β-fibint7) genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred with both gene trees and a Bayesian-based species tree under a coalescent framework (∗BEAST). With exception of the nuclear β-fibint7 gene that produced an unresolved tree, both mtDNA and the species tree showed a similar topology and were congruent in recovering five main clades with high statistical support. These clades, however, are not fully concordant with traditional delimitation of some X. guttatus subspecies, since X. g. polystictus, X. g. guttatus, and X. connectens are not supported as distinct clades. Interestingly, these three taxa are more closely related to the mostly trans-Andean X. susurrans than the other southern and western Amazonian subspecies of X. guttatus, which constitutes a paraphyletic species. Timing estimates based on the species tree indicated that diversification in X. guttatus occurred between the end of the Pliocene and early Pleistocene, likely associated with the formation of the modern Amazon River and its main southern tributaries (Xingu, Tocantins, and Madeira), in addition to climate-induced changes in the distribution of rainforest biomes. Our study supports with an enlarged dataset a previous proposal for recognizing at least three species level taxa in the X. guttatus / susurrans complex: X. susurrans, X. guttatus, and X. guttatoides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 02/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.02.004 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Considering that the species tree method used herein explicitly incorporated gene-tree heterogeneity due to incomplete lineage sorting in a coalescent framework, we suggest that basal position of X. pardalotus is a better representation of the true species history than the previous hypotheses of Aleixo (2002) and Derryberry et al. (2011), as well as our estimated mtDNA gene tree. Despite several congruent estimates, globally our species tree was more accurate (in terms of statistically supported critical nodes) than the multilocus concatenated tree in recovering the evolutionary relationships within X. pardalotus/ocellatus species complex. "
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    ABSTRACT: Inferring evolutionary relationships between recently diverged taxa is still challenging, especially taking into account the likely occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. The Xiphorhynchus pardalotus/ocellatus species complex includes between two to three polytypic species and eight to nine subspecies distributed throughout most of lowland Amazonia and the foothills of the eastern Andes. To understand its historical diversification and address the main unsettled issues of phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy, we apply several approaches using data from two mitochondrial (Cyt b and ND2) and three nuclear genes (β-fibint7, CPZint3 and CRYAAint1) for all described species and most subspecies of this complex. We compared single gene trees with a multilocus concatenated tree and Bayesian species tree inferred under a coalescent framework (∗BEAST). Our results showed a general pattern of incongruence among gene trees and multilocus trees. Despite of this, the coalescent-based species tree analysis supports the sister-taxa relationship of X. ocellatus and X. chunchotambo, while X. pardalotus comes out as the basal taxon. With exception of the last, our results revealed within both X. ocellatus and X. chunchotambo high levels of genetic differentiation (p-distances 0.5 - 5.5%) with well-supported lineages. Our phylogenetic analyses showed several incongruences with current subspecies taxonomy, revealing that X. o. ocellatus is paraphyletic relative to X. o. perplexus, and the currently recognized subspecies X. c. napensis corresponds to two distinct evolutionary lineages, which are not supported as sister-lineages. In addition, the deep level of genetic divergence between X. o. beauperthuysii and the extant subspecies of X. ocellatus is more consistent with species-level differences found in this complex. Divergence time estimates were consistent with a historical scenario of intense population subdivision and speciation during the Early-mid Pleistocene. The spatial pattern and timing of diversification overlap broadly with that reported for other Amazonian vertebrate lineages.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 05/2013; 68(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.04.018 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Table 1 List of samples, Genbank accession numbers and locality information for samples and sequences included in this work. The number in the 'ID' column corresponds to the numbers in Figs 1 and 2. In 'source' column: A = Arbeláez-Cortés et al. (2010), B = Weir et al. (2009), C = Aleixo (2002), D = Brown et al. (2008), E = Kerr et al. (2009) and F = Derryberry et al. (2011) "
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    ABSTRACT: Arbeláez‐Cortés, E., Navarro‐Sigüenza, A. G. & García‐Moreno J. (2012). Phylogeny of woodcreepers of the genus Lepidocolaptes (Aves, Furnariidae), a widespread Neotropical taxon. —Zoologica Scripta, 41, 363–373.Phylogeny of woodcreepers of the genus Lepidocolaptes (Aves, Furnariidae), a widespread Neotropical taxon. The phylogeny of the genus Lepidocolaptes was reconstructed based on three mitochondrial DNA regions and one nuclear DNA intron, using Bayesian analysis. A general pattern of diversification among the lowland species followed by the diversification of highland species, and a close relationship among montane species with the two Atlantic Forest endemics, seem to depict the history of this genus. Results also showed that the two Mesoamerican species are sister‐taxa with high support. Finally, our data also suggest the existence of previously unknown intraspecific genetic structure within some taxa, especially among populations of Lepidocolaptes souleyetii.
    Zoologica Scripta 07/2012; 41:363–373. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00543.x · 3.22 Impact Factor
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