Molecular Systematics and the Role of the "Várzea"-"Terra-Firme" Ecotone in the Diversification of Xiphorhynchus Woodcreepers (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae)

[ "Department of Biological Sciences, and Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, 119 Foster Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA"]
The Auk (Impact Factor: 1.86). 01/2009; 119(Jul 2002):621-640. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2002)119[0621:MSATRO]2.0.CO;2


Se reconstruyó la filogenia de todas las especies conocidas y de muchas de las subespecies de Xiphorhynchus (Dendrocolaptidae) para evaluar los límites de las especies en este género taxonómicamente complejo y para investigar el rol del ecotono entre “várzea” (bosque de inundación) y “terra-firme” (bosque de tierras altas) del Amazonas en su diversificación. Las filogenias fueron inferidas a partir de 2,430 pares de bases de los genes de ADN mitocondrial ND2, ND3 y citocromo b. Todas las estimaciones filogenéticas avalaron la monofilia de todas las especies vivientes de Xiphorhynchus, con excepción del par de especies hermanas X. picus y X. kienerii. Se encontró fuerte respaldo para incluir a Lepidocolaptes fuscus en Xiphorhynchus, confirmando estudios moleculares y anatómicos previos. Los niveles de divergencia en las secuencias entre algunas subespecies de X. guttatus, X. ocellatus y X. spixii alcanzaron o excedieron aquellos encontrados entre especies biológicas cercanamente emparentadas de Xiphorhynchus. Los altos niveles de diferenciación en las secuencias y la parafilia de algunas especies de Xiphorhynchus indicaron que los siguientes taxones deberían ser reconocidos como especies: X. guttatoides, X. chunchotambo y X. elegans. Todas las especies de Xiphorhynchus restringidas a las áreas de bosque de terra-firme de las tierras bajas del Amazonas formaron un grupo monofilético fuertemente respaldado, mientras que las especies restringidas a bosques de várzea aparecieron en la base del clado que contenía a aquellas encontradas en una amplia variedad de hábitats (X. obsoletus) o pertenecieron a un linaje separado que probablemente pueda ser considerado como un género separado (X. kienerii). Estos resultados falsifican la relación de hermandad esperada entre las especies de várzea y terra-firme que se esperaría si el ecotono de várzea y terra-firme hubiera jugado un rol importante en la diferenciación entre poblaciones y en la especiación de Xiphorhynchus. En cambio, las estimaciones filogenéticas sugirieron que la especialización de hábitat de várzea y terra-firme evolucionó temprano en la historia evolutiva de Xiphorhynchus y que las diferenciaciones subsecuentes ocurrieron principalmente en el hábitat de terra-firme.

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Available from: Alexandre Aleixo,
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    • "Given the extreme morphological and genetic similarity between X. g. eytoni and X. g. gracilirostris, as well as the lack of reciprocal monophyly between these taxa, we propose that they are treated as synonymous, with the older name eytoni having nomenclatural priority (Marantz et al., 2003). The only X. guttatus taxon missing from the analyses presented herein (dorbignyanus from northeastern Bolivia and Central Brazil, i.e. between the ranges of nominate guttatoides and vicinalis) has been demonstrated to cluster with high support within the species X. guttatoides as delimited herein (Aleixo, 2002); hence it should also be treated as a subspecies until its evolutionary status is evaluated with a better sampling. Uncorrected sequence divergence among lineages/subspecies of X. guttatoides ranged from 0.7% to 1.4% between X. g. guttatoides (C5) and X. g. vicinalis (C4); 2.0–3.1% between X. g. vicinalis (C4) and X. g. eytoni (C3); and 2.0–3.1% between X. g. eytoni (C3) and X. g. guttatoides (C5). "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Xiphorhynchus is a species rich avian group widely distributed in Neotropical forests of Central and South America. Although recent molecular studies have improved our understanding of the spatial patterns of genetic diversity in some species of this genus, most are still poorly known, including their taxonomy. Here, we address the historical diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the X. guttatus / susurrans complex, using data from two mitochondrial (cyt b and ND2) and one nuclear (β-fibint7) genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred with both gene trees and a Bayesian-based species tree under a coalescent framework (∗BEAST). With exception of the nuclear β-fibint7 gene that produced an unresolved tree, both mtDNA and the species tree showed a similar topology and were congruent in recovering five main clades with high statistical support. These clades, however, are not fully concordant with traditional delimitation of some X. guttatus subspecies, since X. g. polystictus, X. g. guttatus, and X. connectens are not supported as distinct clades. Interestingly, these three taxa are more closely related to the mostly trans-Andean X. susurrans than the other southern and western Amazonian subspecies of X. guttatus, which constitutes a paraphyletic species. Timing estimates based on the species tree indicated that diversification in X. guttatus occurred between the end of the Pliocene and early Pleistocene, likely associated with the formation of the modern Amazon River and its main southern tributaries (Xingu, Tocantins, and Madeira), in addition to climate-induced changes in the distribution of rainforest biomes. Our study supports with an enlarged dataset a previous proposal for recognizing at least three species level taxa in the X. guttatus / susurrans complex: X. susurrans, X. guttatus, and X. guttatoides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 02/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.02.004 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Table 1 List of samples, Genbank accession numbers and locality information for samples and sequences included in this work. The number in the 'ID' column corresponds to the numbers in Figs 1 and 2. In 'source' column: A = Arbeláez-Cortés et al. (2010), B = Weir et al. (2009), C = Aleixo (2002), D = Brown et al. (2008), E = Kerr et al. (2009) and F = Derryberry et al. (2011) "
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    ABSTRACT: Arbeláez-Cortés, E., Navarro-Sigüenza, A. G. & García-Moreno J. (2012). Phylogeny of woodcreepers of the genus Lepidocolaptes (Aves, Furnariidae), a widespread Neotropical taxon. —Zoologica Scripta, 41, 363–373. Phylogeny of woodcreepers of the genus Lepidocolaptes (Aves, Furnariidae), a widespread Neotropical taxon. The phylogeny of the genus Lepidocolaptes was reconstructed based on three mitochondrial DNA regions and one nuclear DNA intron, using Bayesian analysis. A general pattern of diversification among the lowland species followed by the diversification of highland species, and a close relationship among montane species with the two Atlantic Forest endemics, seem to depict the history of this genus. Results also showed that the two Mesoamerican species are sister-taxa with high support. Finally, our data also suggest the existence of previously unknown intraspecific genetic structure within some taxa, especially among populations of Lepidocolaptes souleyetii.
    Zoologica Scripta 07/2012; 41:363–373. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00543.x · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Samples of other Lepidocolaptes species (L. lacrymiger, L. souleyetii, L. leucogaster , and L. angustirostris), Xiphorhynchus flavigaster, and published sequences of Sitassomus griseicapillus (Aleixo, 2002; Weir, 2006) were used as outgroups. "
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    ABSTRACT: We sequenced 1869 bp of mtDNA (cyt b and ND2) from 80 specimens of Lepidocolaptes affinis, a montane bird species of Mesoamerica, sampled at 34 localities from Mexico to Costa Rica. The species showed moderate genetic diversity (π=0.0045) and phylogeographic structure (Φ(ST)=0.12-0.95). The phylogeographic pattern indicated the Nicaragua Depression has prevented gene flow whereas populations on the two sides of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec did not show strong genetic differentiation. In Mexico, the population of the Sierra Madre Oriental was composed of two different lineages. In general, our data did not support a scenario of historical demographic expansion, and matched partially the phylogeographic patterns of other Mesoamerica montane species.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 11/2010; 57(2):658-68. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.06.013 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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