[ "Department of Biological Sciences, and Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, 119 Foster Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA"]; [ ""]
The Auk (Impact Factor: 2.4). 01/2009; DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2002)119[0621:MSATRO]2.0.CO;2

ABSTRACT Se reconstruyó la filogenia de todas las especies conocidas y de muchas de las subespecies de Xiphorhynchus (Dendrocolaptidae) para evaluar los límites de las especies en este género taxonómicamente complejo y para investigar el rol del ecotono entre “várzea” (bosque de inundación) y “terra-firme” (bosque de tierras altas) del Amazonas en su diversificación. Las filogenias fueron inferidas a partir de 2,430 pares de bases de los genes de ADN mitocondrial ND2, ND3 y citocromo b. Todas las estimaciones filogenéticas avalaron la monofilia de todas las especies vivientes de Xiphorhynchus, con excepción del par de especies hermanas X. picus y X. kienerii. Se encontró fuerte respaldo para incluir a Lepidocolaptes fuscus en Xiphorhynchus, confirmando estudios moleculares y anatómicos previos. Los niveles de divergencia en las secuencias entre algunas subespecies de X. guttatus, X. ocellatus y X. spixii alcanzaron o excedieron aquellos encontrados entre especies biológicas cercanamente emparentadas de Xiphorhynchus. Los altos niveles de diferenciación en las secuencias y la parafilia de algunas especies de Xiphorhynchus indicaron que los siguientes taxones deberían ser reconocidos como especies: X. guttatoides, X. chunchotambo y X. elegans. Todas las especies de Xiphorhynchus restringidas a las áreas de bosque de terra-firme de las tierras bajas del Amazonas formaron un grupo monofilético fuertemente respaldado, mientras que las especies restringidas a bosques de várzea aparecieron en la base del clado que contenía a aquellas encontradas en una amplia variedad de hábitats (X. obsoletus) o pertenecieron a un linaje separado que probablemente pueda ser considerado como un género separado (X. kienerii). Estos resultados falsifican la relación de hermandad esperada entre las especies de várzea y terra-firme que se esperaría si el ecotono de várzea y terra-firme hubiera jugado un rol importante en la diferenciación entre poblaciones y en la especiación de Xiphorhynchus. En cambio, las estimaciones filogenéticas sugirieron que la especialización de hábitat de várzea y terra-firme evolucionó temprano en la historia evolutiva de Xiphorhynchus y que las diferenciaciones subsecuentes ocurrieron principalmente en el hábitat de terra-firme.

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    ABSTRACT: Studies of Atlantic forest (AF) organisms suggest that the historical dynamics of the forest cover produced demographically stable populations in its central region and unstable populations in the southern regions. We studied the mitochondrial phylogeographic structure of an AF passerine, the Greenish Schiffornis Schiffornis virescens (Tityridae), and evaluated questions related to the history of the AF. We analyzed cytochrome b and control region sequences of the mitochondrial genome by traditional phylogenetic and population genetic methods based on summary statistics. In addition, we used coalescent simulations to evaluate specific models of evolution of the populations of S. virescens. The results did not support phylogeographic partitions of the genetic variability of S. virescens. The overall Φst was = 0.32 and gene flow between regions was moderate to high. The analyses suggested that the total population of S. virescens suffered a bottleneck followed by a demographic expansion in the late Pleistocene. The bottleneck might have contributed to the extinction of intraspecific lineages, and hence to the observed lack of a strong phylogeographic pattern and low genetic diversity. Our results suggest that some AF taxa have had all their populations similarly affected by the recent history of the biome, contrary to what has been revealed from most of the other phylogeographic studies in the region and as suggested by a model of AF refuges (the Carnaval–Moritz model). We suggest that the response of organisms to common histories may be idiosyncratic, and predictions about the history of the biome should take into account ecological characteristics and distribution of each specific taxa.
    Journal of Ornithology. 154(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Summary.—Without adequate knowledge of species distributions and life-history characteristics it is impossible to undertake robust analyses to answer even basic biogeographical questions or undertake evidence-based conservation planning. We present a follow-up to the first avifaunal inventory from Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Zimmer et al. 1997) following an additional 17 years of field work. We add 124 species to the regional list and clarify the status of others. Many of the species reported here are poorly known, therefore we present data on their status and distribution, both at Alta Floresta and other Amazonian localities.
    Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club (ISSN 0007-1595). 09/2013; 133(3):178-239.
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    ABSTRACT: We document the first records for Guyana of Roraiman Antbird (Percnostola (Schistocichla) "leucostigma" saturata), an endemic of the tepui highlands of southeastern Venezuela, northern Brazil and western Guyana. This form is well differentiated from nom- inate leucostigma (Spot-winged Antbird) of the Guianan lowlands in morphology, vocali- zations, and genetics, and replaces it both altitudinally and ecologically. The two taxa are distributed parapatrically on the continuously forested northeastern slopes of the eastern tepuis, and they almost certainly come into contact, yet there is no evidence of intermediacy. We recommend that saturata be treated as a distinct species of Percnostola, and consider its' origin in the light of various models of speciation in the tepuis.
    Condor. 01/2005; 107(2).

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