Effect of desiccation, starvation, heat, and cold stresses on the thermal resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii in rehydrated infant milk formula.
ABSTRACT Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from powdered infant milk formula. This study determined the effect of desiccation, starvation, heat and cold stresses on the thermal inactivation of E. sakazakii in rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF). Stressed cells were mixed with RIMF at 52, 54, 56, and 58 degrees C for various time periods. The D- and z-values were determined by using linear regression analysis. D-values for unstressed E. sakazakii at 52, 54, 56, and 58 degrees C were 15.33, 4.53, 2, and 0.53 min, respectively. Desiccation and heat stresses, but not starvation or cold stress, caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in D-values. The z-values of desiccated, starved, heat stressed, and cold stressed E. sakazakii were not significantly different from unstressed cells (4.22 degrees C). Thermal resistance of E. sakazakii in RIMF is affected by the environmental stresses; that is, desiccation and heat stresses that may surround the bacterium prior to the contamination of infant formula. The results of this study may be of use to regulatory agencies, infant milk producers, and infant caregivers to design heating processes to eliminate E. sakazakii that may be present in infant milk formula.
Article: Thermal inactivation of acid, cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation stress-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in moisture-enhanced nonintact beef.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to compare thermal inactivation of stress-adapted and nonadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in nonintact beef moisture enhanced with different brine formulations and cooked to 65°C. Coarsely ground beef was mixed with acid, cold, heat, starvation, or desiccation stress-adapted or nonadapted rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (eight-strain mixture, 5 to 6 log CFU/g) and a brine solution for a total moisture enhancement level of 10%. The brine treatments included distilled water (control), sodium chloride (0.5% NaCl) plus sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25% STP), or NaCl + STP combined with cetylpyridinium chloride (0.2% CPC), lactic acid (0.3% LA), or sodium metasilicate (0.2% SM). The treated meat was extruded into bags (15 cm diameter), semifrozen (-20°C for 4.5 h), and cut into 2.54-cm (1-in.)-thick portions. Samples were individually vacuum packaged, frozen (-20°C for 42 h), and tempered at 4°C for 2.5 h before cooking. Partially thawed (-1.8 ± 0.4°C) samples were pan broiled to an internal temperature of 65°C. Pathogen counts of partially thawed (before cooking) samples moisture enhanced with brines containing CPC, LA, or SM were 0.7 to 1.1, 0.0 to 0.4, and 0.2 to 0.4 log CFU/g, respectively, lower than those of the control. Compared with microbial count reductions obtained after pan broiling of beef inoculated with nonadapted E. coli O157:H7 cells, count reductions during cooking of meat inoculated with cold and desiccation stress-adapted, acid stress-adapted, and heat and starvation stress-adapted cells indicated sensitization, cross protection, and no effect, respectively, of these stresses on the pathogen during subsequent exposure to heat. Among all stressed cultures, CPC-treated samples (0.8 to 3.6 log CFU/g) and LA-treated samples (0.8 to 3.5 log CFU/g) had the lowest numbers of E. coli O157:H7 survivors after cooking.Journal of food protection 04/2011; 74(4):531-8. · 1.94 Impact Factor