REVISION OF THE VENOMOUS SNAKES OF BOLIVIA. II: THE PITVIPERS (SERPENTES: VIPERIDAE)
ABSTRACT Twelve species (Bothriopsis bilineata, B. oligolepis, B. taeniata, Bothrocophias microphthalmus, Bothrops andianus, B. atrox, B. jonathani, B. moojeni, B. neuwiedi, B. sanctaecrucis, Crotalus durissus, Lachesis muta) and five genera of pitvipers are known from Bolivia. Known ranges of several species are expanded to accommodate recently collected material and Bothrops andianus is reported from Bolivia. The holotypes of Bothrops andianus and Lachesis peruvianus are redescribed. Bothriopsis oligolepis (Werner) is shown to be synonymous with Lachesis peruvianus Boulenger rather than L. chloromelas. We designate a lectotype of Bothriopsis chloromelas (Boulenger) and apply this name to the ornately patterned forest pitviper endemic to the northern and central Andes of Peru. Morphological variation and reproductive data are reported for B. sanctaecrucis. References to Bolivian specimens of B. jararacussu are based on misidentifications of B. sanctaecrucis. Although the known ranges of B. brazili, B. jararacussu, and Bothrocophias hyoprora approach Bolivia's borders, these species have not yet been collected within the country. A rectangular loreal is rare in pitvipers and may be a synapomorphy of two small Andean pitvipers: B. andianus and B. lojanus.
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ABSTRACT: South American bothropoids comprise a monophyletic and greatly diverse group of pitvipers that were initially included in the genus Bothrops and later assigned to five genera. Until recently, most phylogenetic analyses of bothropoids used exclusively mitochondrial DNA sequences, whereas few of them have included morphological traits. Moreover, the systematic affinities of some species remain unclear. In this study, we performed a parsi-mony analysis of morphological data obtained from the examination of 111 characters related to lepidosis, colour pattern, osteology, and hemipenial morphology of 35 of the 48 species that compose the bothropoid group. The morphological data analysed contain novel information about several species, including the incertae sedis. Morphology was analy-sed separately and combined with 2393 molecular characters obtained from published sequences of four mitochondrial genes. Five characters of the ecology were also included. A sensitivity analysis was performed using different weighting criteria for the characters. The congruence among different sources of evidence was evaluated through partitioned and total evidence analyses, the analyses of reduced datasets and the use of incongruence length difference test. With few exceptions, results showed groups of species similar to those obtained in previous studies; however, incongruences between morphological and molecular characters, and within the molecular partition, were revealed. This conflict affects the relationship between particular groups of species, leading to alternative phyloge-netic hypotheses for bothropoids: hierarchical radiation or two major lineages within the group. The results also showed that Bothrops sensu stricto is paraphyletic. We discuss previ-ous taxonomic approaches and, considering both phylogenetic hypotheses, we propose an arrangement that rectifies the paraphyly of Bothrops: maintaining Bothrocophias, assigning Bothrops andianus to this genus; and recognising the sister clade as Bothrops, synonymising Bothriopsis, Bothropoides and Rhinocerophis.Zoologica Scripta 02/2012; 41(2):109-124. · 2.92 Impact Factor
- Zootaxa 11/2009; 2009(2283):1-15. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Species in the genus Bothrops s. l. are extraordinarily variable in ecology and geography, compared with other genera in the subfamily Crotalinae. In contrast to the trend of splitting large and variable groups into smaller, more ecologically and phenotypically cohesive genera, the genus Bothrops has remained speciose. In addition, previous phylogenetic analyses have found Bothrops to be paraphyletic with respect to the genus Bothriopsis. Taxonomic arguments exist for synonymizing Bothriopsis with Bothrops, and for splitting Bothrops into smaller genera, but the greatest hindrance to taxonomic revision has been incomplete phylogenetic information. We present a phylogeny of Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias based on 85 characters of morphology and 2343 bp of four mitochondrial gene regions, and with significantly greater taxonomic coverage than previous studies. The combined data provide improved support over independent datasets, and support the existence of discrete species groups within Bothrops. The monophyly and distinctness of these groups warrant recognition at the generic level, and we propose a new taxonomic arrangement to reflect these findings. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 156, 617–640.Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 06/2009; 156(3):617 - 640. · 2.66 Impact Factor