Competitiveness and Essential Oil Phytotoxicity of Seven Annual Aromatic Plants

[ "*First, fifth, and sixth authors: Associate Professor, Researcher, and Professor, Department of Plant Production, Technological and Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, 574 00 Echedoros, Greece; second author: Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production, Technological and Educational Institute of Larissa, 411 10 Larissa, Greece; third and fourth authors: Researcher and Assistant Professor, Department of Food Technology, Technological and Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, 574 00 Echedoros, Greece. Corresponding author's E-mail: "]; [ "Quizalofop, Targa 5 EC, g ai L−1, Rhone Poulenc, Lyon, France."]; [ "Propane-pressurized plot sprayer, AZO-SPRAYERS, P.O. Box 350-6710 BJ EDE, the Netherlands."]; [ "Flat fan nozzles, Teejet Spray System Co., P.O. Box 7900, Wheaton, IL 60188."]; [ "Pure compounds used as identification and quantification standards (including ethyl heptadecanoate used as internal standard) were purchased from Alfa Aesar (Karlsruhe, Germany), Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO), and Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland)."]; [ "7890A gas chromatograph, Agilent Technologies, Inc., 5301 Stevens Creek Blvd., Santa Clara, CA 95051."]; [ "ChemStation software, Agilent Technologies, Inc., 5301 Stevens Creek Blvd., Santa Clara, CA 95051."]; [ "MSTAT-C, a microcomputer program for the design, management, and analysis of agronomic research experiments. Crop and Soil Sciences Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI."]
Weed Science (Impact Factor: 1.76). 10/2010; DOI: 10.1614/WS-D-10-00031.1

ABSTRACT Crops that effectively compete with weeds may be more suitable in low-input agricultural systems. A 2-yr field experiment was conducted in northern Greece to assess the competitiveness of seven annual aromatic plants (anise, sweet fennel, sweet basil, dill, coriander, parsley, and lacy phacelia) on common purslane, common lambsquarters, black nightshade, and barnyardgrass. The phytotoxicity of the essential oils produced by these aromatic plants was also determined using a perlite-based bioassay with barnyardgrass. Separation, identification, and quantification of the volatile compounds of these essential oils were also performed. After the harvest of the aromatic plants (8 wk after planting), the greatest weed fresh weight reduction (94 to 100%) was recorded in lacy phacelia, whereas the least (0 to 30%) was recorded in parsley. Lacy phacelia and sweet fennel produced the greatest fresh biomass yield in weedy and weed-free treatments, whereas parsley, dill, and coriander produced the lowest. Biomass of sweet fennel and anise was reduced by only 9 to 11% by weed competition, whereas biomass of lacy phacelia was not significantly affected. The essential oils isolated from sweet fennel and sweet basil were the most phytotoxic on barnyardgrass, whereas those isolated from lacy phacelia and anise were the least phytotoxic. Conclusively, aromatic plants with great competitiveness such as lacy phacelia, anise, and sweet fennel provided great weed suppression and they could be cultivated with low inputs in herbicides. However, high competitiveness of aromatic plants may not always be correlated with high essential oil phytotoxicity. Nomenclature: Anise, Pimpinella anisum L; barnyardgrass, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. ECHCG; black nightshade, Solanum nigrum L. SOLNI; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. CHEAL; common purslane, Portulaca oleracea L. POROL; coriander, Coriandrum sativum L; dill, Anethum graveolens L; lacy phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth; parsley, Petroselinum crispum (P. Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill; sweet basil, Ocimum basilcum L; sweet fennel, Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Based on the typical biological responses of an organism to allelochemicals (hormesis), concepts of whole-range assessment and inhibition index were developed for improved analysis of allelopathic data. Examples of their application are presented using data drawn from the literature. The method is concise and comprehensive, and makes data grouping and multiple comparisons simple, logical, and possible. It improves data interpretation, enhances research outcomes, and is a statistically efficient summary of the plant response profiles.
    Nonlinearity in Biology Toxicology and Medicine 05/2005; 3(2):245-59.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cinch is a morphogenetically active herbicide that inhibits primary root growth and induces abnormal ``nodule-like'' lateral roots on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Using 200 nm Cinch, the early stages of lateral root formation occurred along the apical half of the root axis; but once emerged, they were inhibited from further growth. Second-order lateral roots formed at the base of stunted first-order lateral roots after 5 days of Cinch treatment. Results from Cinch experiments suggested that pericycle cells are determined in the meristem to be potential sites of lateral root formation, and the developmental transition point between emerged lateral roots and subsequent growth is inhibited. Results using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid suggest that Cinch is not a chemical analog of auxin.
    Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 04/1998; 17(2):107-114. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The volatile components of dill seed and herb were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry which revealed the odorants having highest odor-activity value (ratio of concentration to odor threshold). (+)-(4S)-Carvone was the predominent odorant of dill seed. (+)-(3R,4S,8S)-3,9-Epoxy-1-p-menthene, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, (+)-(4S)-α-phellandrene and myristicin were the most important odorants of dill herb. Calculation of odor-activity values on the basis of quantitative and odor threshold data confirmed results of the aroma extract dilution analysis.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 56(1):63 - 67. · 1.78 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 19, 2014