The Andean Goblin Spiders of the New Genera Niarchos and Scaphios (Araneae, Oonopidae)
ABSTRACT A new genus, Niarchos, is established for a group of 22 new species from the Andean regions of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Although the males of most of these species are obviously gamasomorphines, with a well-developed dorsal abdominal scutum, that scutum is reduced, in the males of two species, to just a narrow, sclerotized, longitudinal strip that covers only the cardiac area and is fused anteriorly to the epigastric scutum. Females of all species, in contrast, show no trace whatever of a dorsal abdominal scutum, have only short and lightly sclerotized epigastric and postepigastric scuta, and could therefore easily be misidentified as oonopines. Four species groups are recognized within the genus, each characterized by a distinctive form of male palp; the four groups are united by the presence of a triangular, posteriorly directed anterior projection on the male endites as well as by the sexual dimorphism in scutum morphology, reduced posterior eyes, and an unusual leg spination pattern (with spines absent on the anterior legs and present only as slightly enlarged but darkened macrosetae on tibiae, and sometimes metatarsi, III and/or IV). The cotopaxi group includes eight species, six from western Ecuador (N. cotopaxi, N. barragani, N. keili, N. baehrae, N. tapiai, and N. elicioi) and two from southwestern Colombia (N. wygodzinskyi and N. florezi); males of this group are united by a unique retroventral projection on the male palpal bulb. The scutatus group includes seven species from eastern Ecuador (N. scutatus, N. ramirezi, N. bonaldoi, N. vegai, N. santosi, N. michaliki, and N. ligiae); males of this group are united by an embolar base bent at a right angle at about half its length. The loja group includes two species from southern Ecuador and northern Peru (N. loja and N. foreroi) in which the embolus is elongated. The palenque group includes two species from western Ecuador (N. palenque and N. facundoi) in which the distal portion of the embolus is short and translucent. Three Ecuadorean species known only from females (N. grismadoi, N. matiasi, and N. rheimsae) are left unplaced, but apparently represent at least one additional, relatively widespread species group. A second new genus, Scaphios, is described for a group of seven new species from Ecuador (S. yanayacu, S. napo, S. cayambe, S. wagra, S. jatun, S. orellana, and S. puyo), plus one species from southwestern Colombia (S. planada), that resemble those of Niarchos in dorsal scutum morphology and leg spination, but have fully developed posterior eyes, a laterally directed anterior projection on the male endites, and a subdistally originating, sinuous embolus. Males of S. orellana also have reduced dorsal and postepigastric abdominal scuta, but (unlike the Niarchos males with reduced scuta) the dorsal scutum is separate from the epigastric scutum. A shared pattern of sexual dimorphism in ventral pedicel sclerite morphology suggests that Niarchos and Scaphios are sister groups.
- SourceAvailable from: scielo.br[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two new species, Opopaea viamao and O. ita, are described from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil, respectively. Both species present reduction or loss of posterior median eyes, a possible synapomorphic caracter.Iheringia. Série Zoologia. 01/2003;
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although the type species of the widespread, speciose, and abundant goblin spider genus Opopaea Simon was initially described from St. Vincent in the Lesser Antilles, and 15 additional New World taxa have since been assigned to the genus, we hypothesize that Opopaea is not native to the New World, and is represented in America only by introduced species that, although now pantropical in distribution, are of Old World origin. Myrmecoscaphiella Mello-Leitão is placed as a junior synonym of Opopaea, and its type species, M. borgmeyeri Mello-Leitão from Brazil, is newly synonymized with O. concolor (Blackwall), as are also O. devia Gertsch from Texas, O. guaraniana Birabén from Argentina, and O. bandina Chickering from Florida. Opopaea timida Chickering, from Panama, is placed as a junior synonym of the type species, O. deserticola Simon, which is newly recorded from Mexico, Costa Rica, Bermuda, the Bahama Islands, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbados, Trinidad, Colombia, and Brazil; O. concolor is newly recorded from Mexico, Costa Rica, the Bahama Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, Peru, and Hawaii. A third widespread species has most commonly been cited as O. lena Suman, originally described from Hawaii and recently chosen as the type species of the monotypic genus Nale Saaristo and Marusik. Nale is here placed as a junior synonym of Epectris Simon, as its type species is placed as a junior synonym of E. apicalis Simon, described from the Philippines; E. apicalis is newly recorded from Florida, Mexico, Panama, Ecuador, Réunion, Singapore, Borneo, Micronesia, and New Caledonia. Opopaea cupida (Keyserling) is transferred to Marsupopaea Cooke; O. recondita Chickering is transferred to Brignolia Dumitresco and Georgesco. In a supplement, Pelicinus vernalis (Bryant), described from Florida, is also placed as a junior synonym of O. concolor.American Museum Novitates 06/2009; · 1.69 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new genus, Escaphiella, is established for a group of 36 oonopid species found from the United States south to Chile and Argentina. The previously known species had been placed in Scaphiella Simon, and Escaphiella is hypothesized to be the sister group of that genus. Members of the two groups share a laterally extended ventral abdominal scutum and a distinctive female genitalic conformation, but differ in cheliceral shape and setation, female palpal tarsal shape, male and female palpal tarsal setation, embolus form, and posterior respiratory structure. At least seven species of Escaphiella are characterized by the highly unusual occurrence of asymmetry between the right and left male pedipalps. In at least eight species, the right and left posterior median spinnerets are fused into a single median projection, or even lost entirely. Nine specific names are transferred from Scaphiella: S. hespera Chamberlin (chosen as the type species), S. litoris Chamberlin, S. juvenilis (Gertsch and Davis), S. iguala Gertsch and Davis, S. schmidti Reimoser, S. gertschi Chickering, S. itys Simon, S. scutata Chickering, and S. argentina Birabén. Two of those names are newly synonymized: E. juvenilis with E. hespera, and E. scutata with E. itys. The female of E. hespera is described for the first time, and 29 new species are described: E. nye from California and Nevada, E. acapulco, E. colima, E. catemaco, E. tonila, E. chiapa, E. nayarit, E. magna, and E. olivacea from Mexico, E. viquezi from Honduras and Nicaragua, E. tayrona, E. betin, and E. gigantea from Colombia, E. bolivar from Venezuela, E. cidades, E. hesperoides, E. maculosa, E. cachimbo, E. aratau, E. bahia, E. pocone, E. blumenau, and E. morro from Brazil, E. exlineae from Peru, E. peckorum from Argentina, E. ramirezi from Argentina and Uruguay, E. ocoa from Chile, and E. cristobal and E. isabela from the Galapagos Islands.Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 09/2009; · 3.49 Impact Factor