Article

A demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle methodology for city-scale greenhouse gas inventories

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 10/2008; 42(17):6455-61. DOI: 10.1021/es702992q
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for individual cities is confounded by spatial scale and boundary effects that impact the allocation of regional material and energy flows. This paper develops a demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle-based methodology for conducting city-scale GHG inventories that incorporates (1) spatial allocation of surface and airline travel across colocated cities in larger metropolitan regions, and, (2) life-cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the embodied energy of key urban materials--food, water, fuel, and concrete. The hybrid methodology enables cities to separately report the GHG impact associated with direct end-use of energy by cities (consistent with EPA and IPCC methods), as well as the impact of extra-boundary activities such as air travel and production of key urban materials (consistent with Scope 3 protocols recommended by the World Resources Institute). Application of this hybrid methodology to Denver, Colorado, yielded a more holistic GHG inventory that approaches a GHG footprint computation, with consistency of inclusions across spatial scale as well as convergence of city-scale per capita GHG emissions (approximately 25 mt CO2e/person/year) with state and national data. The method is shown to have significant policy impacts, and also demonstrates the utility of benchmarks in understanding energy use in various city sectors.

1 Follower
 · 
122 Views
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although Macao is one of the individual members of the Kyoto Protocol, a holistic picture to draw its energy consumption and GHG emissions has been lacking. A comprehensive review of energy consumption as well as GHG emissions is presented in this study for Macao since the handover of sovereignty to China. The results show that the Macao's energy consumption and its related GHG emissions were 32,700 Terajoules (Tj) and 3.70E+06 t CO2 e. in 2010, increased by 31.10% and 100.34% over those of 2000, respectively. The results also indicate that electricity is the biggest contributor to GHG emissions, and induced a large amount of GHG emissions in other places. Energy intensity and per capita GHG emission also witnessed growth from 2000 to 2010. In terms of sectors of the economy, the service industry, commerce, restaurants and hotels, transportation and households are the leading four energy users and GHG emission inducers. Our analysis also suggests that decision-makers should take indirect emissions from energy consumption into consideration to support Macao's energy, climate and sustainability initiatives.
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 06/2013; 22:23-32. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.072 · 5.51 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Urban Planning and Development 03/2015; 141(1):04014011. DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000196 · 0.93 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
3 Downloads
Available from