Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes-related complications.
ABSTRACT In 2005, it was estimated that more than 20 million people in the United States had diabetes. Approximately 30% of these people had undiagnosed cases. Increased risk for diabetes is primarily associated with age, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity. Diabetes-related complications--including cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, neuropathy, blindness, and lower-extremity amputation--are a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality among people with diabetes, and result in a heavy economic burden on the US health care system. With advances in treatment for diabetes and its associated complications, people with diabetes are living longer with their condition. This longer life span will contribute to further increases in the morbidity associated with diabetes, primarily in elderly people and in minority racial or ethnic groups. In 2050, the number of people in the United States with diagnosed diabetes is estimated to grow to 48.3 million. RESULTS: from randomized controlled trials provide evidence that intensive lifestyle interventions can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes in high-risk individuals. In addition, adequate and sustained control of blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and blood lipid levels can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes-related complications in people with diabetes. Effective interventions, at both the individual and population levels, are desperately needed to slow the diabetes epidemic and reduce diabetes-related complications in the United States. This report describes the current diabetes epidemic and the health and economic impact of diabetes complications on individuals and on the health care system. The report also provides suggestions by which the epidemic can be curbed.
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ABSTRACT: Tea is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world. There are three types of tea depending on the level of fermentation, i.e., green (unfermented), oolong (partially fermented) and black (fermented) tea. Many health benefits of various types of tea have been known up to present time. In general, green tea has been found to be superior to black tea in terms of antioxidant activity owing to the higher content of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. The processes used in the manufacture of black tea are known to decrease levels of the monomeric catechins to a much greater extent than the less severe conditions applied to other teas. In the present review, we have discussed the current state of the science with regard to laboratory studies on various types of tea and some of health disorders including some types of cancer, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, resistance to insulin hypertension and obesity have been discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of lifestyle intervention on clinical risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes is unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of comprehensive lifestyle change, such as diet, exercise, and education, on clinical markers that are risk-factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.Metabolism 10/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor