Epidemiology of Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Complications
ABSTRACT In 2005, it was estimated that more than 20 million people in the United States had diabetes. Approximately 30% of these people had undiagnosed cases. Increased risk for diabetes is primarily associated with age, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity. Diabetes-related complications--including cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, neuropathy, blindness, and lower-extremity amputation--are a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality among people with diabetes, and result in a heavy economic burden on the US health care system. With advances in treatment for diabetes and its associated complications, people with diabetes are living longer with their condition. This longer life span will contribute to further increases in the morbidity associated with diabetes, primarily in elderly people and in minority racial or ethnic groups. In 2050, the number of people in the United States with diagnosed diabetes is estimated to grow to 48.3 million. RESULTS: from randomized controlled trials provide evidence that intensive lifestyle interventions can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes in high-risk individuals. In addition, adequate and sustained control of blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and blood lipid levels can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes-related complications in people with diabetes. Effective interventions, at both the individual and population levels, are desperately needed to slow the diabetes epidemic and reduce diabetes-related complications in the United States. This report describes the current diabetes epidemic and the health and economic impact of diabetes complications on individuals and on the health care system. The report also provides suggestions by which the epidemic can be curbed.
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ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that diabetes mellitus disproportionately afflicts persons of low socioeconomic status and that the burden of disease is greatest among the disadvantaged. However, our understanding of educational differences in the control of diabetes and its impact on survival is limited. This study investigated the associations among education, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and subsequent mortality in adults with diabetes.Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 01/2015; 107(3). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.12.013 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim S.AGES is a multicenter prospective cohort study of non-institutionalized patients aged 65 and over with atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes or chronic pain. Its objective is to describe the medical management in primary care. This article presents the baseline characteristics of subjects in the diabetes subcohort and compares the results to those from cohorts of older diabetic patients. Methods From April 2009 to June 2011, 983 patients were included in the diabetes subcohort by 213 primary care providers. Demographic data, geriatric parameters and the history, characteristics and treatment of the diabetes were recorded at baseline. Results The mean age was 76.7 ± 5.9 years. Most patients were living independently, with no cognitive impairment and in relatively good health. The duration of diabetes was 11.3 ± 8.7 years with average HbA1c of 6.9 ± 1.0%. 20% of patients had macrovascular disease, 33% renal failure, 14.6% ocular complication and 7.1% neuropathy. The first-line antidiabetic treatment was metformin (61.2%) and 18% of patients had used insulin. Treatment intensified with the worsening of diabetic symptoms. When compared to those from French and North American cohorts, the results showed increased complications and use of insulin with age, disease duration and severity. Conclusion Due to the method of recruitment, S.AGES patients were generally healthy with well-controlled diabetes. However, the results were consistent with those from other cohorts. Three-year follow-up is expected to study the management of diabetic patients aged 65 and over in primary care.Primary Care Diabetes 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pcd.2014.07.004 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of a polyherbal mixture containing Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrullus colocynthis, Juglans regia, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium arctostaphylos were tested on biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were randomized into three groups: (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, and (3) diabetic rats which received diet containing 15% (w/w) of this mixture for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). At the end of experiment, the mixture had no significant effect on serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. However, the level of fasting blood glucose, water intake, and urine output in treated group was lower than that in diabetic control rats (P < 0.01). Also, the levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in polyherbal mixture treated rats were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that this polyherbal mixture has beneficial effects on blood glucose and lipid profile and it has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes.12/2013; 2013:675759. DOI:10.1155/2013/675759