Correction: Cytokinesis-Based Constraints on Polarized Cell Growth in Fission Yeast

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.
PLoS Genetics (Impact Factor: 8.17). 10/2012; 8(10):e1003004. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The rod-shaped fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which undergoes cycles of monopolar-to-bipolar tip growth, is an attractive organism for studying cell-cycle regulation of polarity establishment. While previous research has described factors mediating this process from interphase cell tips, we found that division site signaling also impacts the re-establishment of bipolar cell growth in the ensuing cell cycle. Complete loss or targeted disruption of the non-essential cytokinesis protein Fic1 at the division site, but not at interphase cell tips, resulted in many cells failing to grow at new ends created by cell division. This appeared due to faulty disassembly and abnormal persistence of the cell division machinery at new ends of fic1Δ cells. Moreover, additional mutants defective in the final stages of cytokinesis exhibited analogous growth polarity defects, supporting that robust completion of cell division contributes to new end-growth competency. To test this model, we genetically manipulated S. pombe cells to undergo new end take-off immediately after cell division. Intriguingly, such cells elongated constitutively at new ends unless cytokinesis was perturbed. Thus, cell division imposes constraints that partially override positive controls on growth. We posit that such constraints facilitate invasive fungal growth, as cytokinesis mutants displaying bipolar growth defects formed numerous pseudohyphae. Collectively, these data highlight a role for previous cell cycles in defining a cell's capacity to polarize at specific sites, and they additionally provide insight into how a unicellular yeast can transition into a quasi-multicellular state.

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    ABSTRACT: Rho GTPases, activated by Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), are conserved molecular switches for signal transductions that regulate diverse cellular processes including cell polarization and cytokinesis. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has six Rho GTPases (Cdc42 and Rho1-Rho5) and seven Rho GEFs (Scd1, Rgf1-Rgf3, and Gef1-Gef3). The GEFs for Rho2-Rho5 have not been unequivocally assigned. Particularly, Gef3, the smallest Rho GEF, was barely studied. Here we show that Gef3 colocalizes with septins at the cell equator. Gef3 physically interacts with septins and anillin Mid2 and depends on them to localize. Gef3 coprecipitates with GDP-bound Rho4 in vitro and accelerates nucleotide exchange of Rho4, suggesting that Gef3 is a GEF for Rho4. Consistently, Gef3 and Rho4 are in the same genetic pathways to regulate septum formation and/or cell separation. In gef3∆ cells, the localizations of two potential Rho4 effectors, glucanases Eng1 and Agn1, are abnormal; and active Rho4 level is reduced, indicating that Gef3 is involved in Rho4 activation in vivo. Moreover, overexpression of active Rho4 or Eng1 rescues the septation defects of mutants containing gef3∆. Together, our data support that Gef3 interacts with the septin complex and activates Rho4 GTPase as a Rho GEF for septation in fission yeast. © 2014 by The American Society for Cell Biology.
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