New mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance: Make no bones about it

The Journal of clinical investigation (Impact Factor: 13.22). 10/2012; 122(11). DOI: 10.1172/JCI66180
Source: PubMed


Glucocorticoids are a powerful tool used to treat a range of human illnesses, including autoimmune diseases and cancer, and to prevent rejection following organ transplantation. While lifesaving for many, they come with a steep price, often leading to obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In this issue of the JCI, Brennan-Speranza and colleagues provide evidence that the osteoblast-derived peptide osteocalcin is one of the drivers of the metabolic derangements associated with glucocorticoid therapy. This novel mechanism could open up new avenues for the treatment of these disorders.

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Available from: Heather Ferris, Jun 11, 2014
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    • "Res. (2015), [3] "
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated cortisol levels and dysregulated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1; a marker of hepatic insulin sensitivity) are both related to insulin resistance and glucose abnormalities. It is unknown whether improvement in these parameters is related to improved glucose metabolism during treatment with sitagliptin. To determine whether improved insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function during treatment with sitagliptin is related to lower cortisol levels and/or improved regulation of IGFBP-1 in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and newly discovered glucose abnormalities. Samples were taken from The BEta-cell function in Glucose abnormalities and Acute Myocardial Infarction (BEGAMI) trial, a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin for patients with ACS and newly discovered glucose abnormalities. Cardiology departments (cardiac ICU and outpatient clinic) in two hospitals in Stockholm, Sweden. Subjects hospitalized (or recently hospitalized) for ACS, in whom an oral glucose tolerance test revealed previously unknown glucose abnormalities. Subjects were randomized to sitagliptin 100mg once daily (n=34) or placebo (n=37) for twelve weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and randomization occurred after stabilization median 7days after ACS. Fasting serum cortisol and IGFBP-1 were analyzed before OGTT, around 8a.m., and after at 10a.m. The latter time point was chosen as the spread in cortisol levels around is small then, allowing improved chances to detect differences between groups. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity improved in both groups, while HbA1c and indices of β-cell function improved only in the sitagliptin group as reported previously. Both groups displayed decreased cortisol levels around 10a.m. (from 338±21 to 278±14nmol/L, p=0.038, in the sitagliptin group; from 343±17 to 302±15nmol/L, p=0.017, in the placebo group), and improved correlation between fasting log-IGFBP-1 and insulin. These findings suggest that a stress-related elevation in cortisol may have negative impact on glucose tolerance in patients with recent ACS. However, improved glycemic control with sitagliptin does not appear to be related to changes in cortisol levels or hepatic insulin sensitivity as assessed by IGFBP-1. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Growth hormone & IGF research: official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ghir.2015.07.009 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    • "An impairment in glucose homeostasis was identified as one potential side effect in many patients administered GCs. Increments in insulin resistance in insulin-targeted organs, including the liver, adipose tissues, and skeletal muscle, as well as the up-regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver are mainly involved in GC-induced hyperglycemia (Ferris and Kahn, 2012). Osteoblasts were also recently identified as novel targets that play a role in GC-induced hyperglycemia (Brennan-Speranza et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are widely used as anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive drugs, but often induce hyperglycemia as a side effect. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from intestinal L cells and plays crucial roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the direct effects of glucocorticoids on the GLP-1 production pathway in L cells remain unclear. We investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on GLP-1 production in vitro and in vivo. In L cell lines, glucocorticoids decreased GLP-1 release and expression of the precursor, proglucagon, at protein and mRNA levels, which were inhibited by mifepristone. The administration of dexamethasone or budesonide to mice significantly decreased the mRNA expression of proglucagon in the ileum and partially decreased glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. Compound A, a dissociated glucocorticoid receptor modulator, did not affect the expression of proglucagon in vitro. These results suggested that glucocorticoids directly reduced GLP-1 production at the transcriptional level in L cells through a glucocorticoid receptor dimerization-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 02/2015; 406. DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2015.02.014 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excess cortisol and GH induce insulin resistance, a central feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). To study whether the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone affects basal cortisol levels and the GH-IGF-I axis in patients with T2D. Forty-eight patients with T2D (men/women = 28:20, age 61 ± 1 years, BMI 31 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) were treated for 26 weeks with pioglitazone 30-45 mg daily in addition to their preexisting therapy. Insulin, proinsulin, HbA(1c), IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and basal cortisol were analyzed before and after treatment. Pioglitazone decreased proinsulin/insulin ratio and HbA(1c) decreased (HbA(1c) from 7.8 ± 0.2 to 6.6 ± 0.2 % in men and from 7.6 ± 0.2 to 6.1 ± 0.2 % in women, p < 0.001 in both). There was a redistribution of fat but no change in waist circumference. IGF-I and adiponectin increased (p ≤ 0.001) in both genders. IGFBP-1 increased but significantly only for the whole group (p = 0.033). Triglycerides decreased significantly in women only (p = 0.015). Before treatment, women had lower basal cortisol (p = 0.045). Basal cortisol increased in women (from 390 ± 26 to 484 ± 32 nmol/L, p = 0.020) but not in men and did not differ between genders at week 26. ΔIGFBP-1 correlated with Δcortisol (r = 0.458; p = 0.049) and Δadiponectin (r = 0.600; p = 0.005) in women only. In addition to the known effect of improving insulin sensitivity, pioglitazone increased IGF-I regardless of gender and in women also increased basal cortisol. Increased IGF-I may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity after treatment. There seems to be gender differences in treatment responses to pioglitazone on lipid metabolism and basal cortisol, perhaps correcting different mechanisms of insulin resistance between genders.
    Acta Diabetologica 02/2013; 51(2). DOI:10.1007/s00592-013-0457-y · 2.40 Impact Factor
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