Pleiotropic functional properties of androgen receptor mutants in prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT The androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway plays an important role during the development of the normal prostate gland, but also during the progression of prostate cancer on androgen ablation therapy. Mutations in the AR gene emerge to keep active the AR signaling pathway and to support prostate cancer cells growth and survival despite the low levels of circulating androgens. Indeed, mutations affecting the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the AR have been shown to generate so-called "promiscuous" receptors that present widened ligand specificity and allow the stimulation of these receptors by a larger spectrum of endogenous hormones. Another class of mutations, arising in the amino-terminal domain (NTD) of the receptor, modulate AR interactions with coregulators involved in cell proliferation regulation. Besides characteristics of these well-known types of mutations, the properties of other classes of AR mutants recently described in prostate cancer are currently under investigation. Most interestingly, in addition to their potential role in the mechanisms which allow prostate cancer cells to escape androgen ablation therapy, data suggest that certain AR mutations are present early in the natural history of the disease and may play a role in many aspects of prostate cancer progression. Surprisingly, singular truncated AR devoid of their carboxy-terminal end (CTE) region seem to exert specific paracrine effects and to induce a clonal cooperation with neighboring prostate cancer cells, which may facilitate both the invasion and metastasis processes. In this article, we review the functional properties of different classes of AR mutants and their potential impact on the natural history of prostate cancer. Hum Mutat 0, 1-14, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article: Androgen receptor controls EGFR and ERBB2 gene expression at different levels in prostate cancer cell lines.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: EGFR or ERBB2 contributes to prostate cancer (PCa) progression by activating the androgen receptor (AR) in hormone-poor conditions. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which androgens regulate EGFR and ERBB2 expression in PCa cells. In steroid-depleted medium (SDM), EGFR protein was less abundant in androgen-sensitive LNCaP than in androgen ablation-resistant 22Rv1 cells, whereas transcript levels were similar. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment increased both EGFR mRNA and protein levels and stimulated RNA polymerase II recruitment to the EGFR gene promoter, whereas it decreased ERBB2 transcript and protein levels in LNCaP cells. DHT altered neither EGFR or ERBB2 levels nor the abundance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), TMEPA1, or TMPRSS2 mRNAs in 22Rv1 cells, which express the full-length and a shorter AR isoform deleted from the COOH-terminal domain (ARDeltaCTD). The contribution of both AR isoforms to the expression of these genes was assessed by small interfering RNAs targeting only the full-length or both AR isoforms. Silencing of both isoforms strongly reduced PSA, TMEPA1, and TMPRSS2 transcript levels. Inhibition of both AR isoforms did not affect EGFR and ERBB2 transcript levels but decreased EGFR and increased ERBB2 protein levels. Proliferation of 22Rv1 cells in SDM was inhibited in the absence of AR and ARDeltaCTD. A further decrease was obtained with PKI166, an EGFR/ERBB2 kinase inhibitor. Overall, we showed that ARDeltaCTD is responsible for constitutive EGFR expression and ERBB2 repression in 22Rv1 cells and that ARDeltaCTD and tyrosine kinase receptors are necessary for sustained 22Rv1 cell growth.Cancer Research 05/2009; 69(7):2941-9. · 7.86 Impact Factor