HIV therapy by a combination of broadly neutralizing antibodies in humanized mice
ABSTRACT Human antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) can neutralize a broad range of viral isolates in vitro and protect non-human primates against infection1, 2. Previous work showed that antibodies exert selective pressure on the virus but escape variants emerge within a short period of time3, 4. However, these experiments were performed before the recent discovery of more potent anti-HIV-1 antibodies and their improvement by structure-based design5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Here we re-examine passive antibody transfer as a therapeutic modality in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. Although HIV-1 can escape from antibody monotherapy, combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies can effectively control HIV-1 infection and suppress viral load to levels below detection. Moreover, in contrast to antiretroviral therapy10, 11, 12, the longer half-life of antibodies led to control of viraemia for an average of 60 days after cessation of therapy. Thus, combinations of potent monoclonal antibodies can effectively control HIV-1 replication in humanized mice, and should be re-examined as a therapeutic modality in HIV-1-infected individuals.
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ABSTRACT: Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Ig(mim2), CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized >90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4(+) T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection. SIVcpz is widespread in wild-living chimpanzees and can cause AIDS-like immunopathology and clinical disease. HIV-1 infection of humans can be controlled by antiretroviral therapy; however, treatment of wild-living African apes with current drug regimens is not feasible. Nonetheless, it may be possible to curb the spread of SIVcpz in select ape communities using vectored immunoprophylaxis and/or therapy. Here, we show that antibodies and antibody-like inhibitors developed to combat HIV-1 infection in humans are capable of neutralizing genetically diverse SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with considerable breadth and potency, including in primary chimpanzee CD4(+) T cells. These reagents provide an important first step toward translating intervention strategies currently developed to treat and prevent AIDS in humans to SIV-infected apes. Copyright © 2015 Barbian et al.mBio 01/2015; 6(2). DOI:10.1128/mBio.00296-15 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Similar to other type I fusion machines, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) requires proteolytic activation; specifically, cleavage of a gp160 precursor into gp120 and gp41 subunits creates an N-terminal gp41-fusion peptide and permits folding from an immature uncleaved to a mature closed state. While the atomic-level consequences of cleavage on HIV-1 Env are still being determined, the uncleaved state is antigenically distinct from the mature closed state, and cleavage has been reported to be essential for mimicry of the mature viral spike by soluble versions of Env. Here we report the redesign of a current state-of-the-art soluble Env mimic, BG505.SOSIP, to make it cleavage-independent. Specifically, we replaced the furin-cleavage site between gp120 and gp41 with Gly-Ser linkers of varying length. The resultant linked gp120-gp41 constructs, termed single-chain gp140 or sc-gp140, exhibited different levels of structural and antigenic mimicry of the parent cleaved BG505.SOSIP. When constructs were subjected to negative selection to remove subspecies recognized by poorly neutralizing antibodies, trimers of high antigenic mimicry of BG505.SOSIP could be obtained; negative-stain electron microscopy indicated these to resemble the mature closed state. Higher proportions of BG505.SOSIP-trimer mimicry were observed in sc-gp140s with linkers of 6 or more residues, with a linker length of 15 residues exhibiting especially promising traits. Overall, flexible linkages between gp120 and gp41 in BG505.SOSIP can thus substitute for cleavage, and sc-gp140s that closely mimicked the vaccine-preferred mature closed state of Env could be obtained. The trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole target of virus-directed neutralizing antibody responses and a primary focus of vaccine design. Soluble mimics of Env have proven challenging to obtain and have been thought to require proteolytic cleavage into two component subunits, gp120 and gp41, to achieve structural and antigenic mimicry of mature Env spikes on virions. Here we show that replacement of the cleavage site between gp120 and gp41 in a lead soluble gp140 construct, BG505.SOSIP, with flexible linkers can result in molecules that do not require cleavage to fold efficiently into the mature closed state. Our results provide insights into the impact of cleavage on HIV-1 Env folding. In some contexts such as genetic immunization, optimized cleavage-independent soluble gp140 constructs may have utility over the parental BG505.SOSIP, as they would not require furin cleavage to achieve mimicry of mature Env spikes on virions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
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ABSTRACT: The identification of highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1, and success in preventing SHIV infection following their passive administration, have increased the likelihood that immunotherapeutic strategies can be adopted to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection. However, while broad and potent neutralizing activity is an essential prerequisite, in vivo properties such as good circulatory stability and non-immunogenicity are equally critical for developing a human treatment. In the present study, glycoforms of the bnAbs 10-1074, NIH45-46G54W, 10E8, PGT121, PGT128, PGT145, PGT135, PG9, PG16, VRC01 and b12 were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of Nicotiana benthamiana and assessed following administration in rhesus macaques. The results indicate that (i) N-glycans within the VL domain impair plasma stability of plant-derived bnAbs and (ii) while PGT121 and b12 exhibit no immunogenicity in rhesus macaques after multiple injections, VRC01, 10-1074 and NIH45-46G54W elicit high titer anti-idiotypic antibodies following a second injection. These anti-idiotypic antibodies specifically bind the administered bnAb or a close family member, and inhibit the bnAb in neutralization assays. These findings suggest that specific mutations in certain bnAbs contribute to their immunogenicity and call attention to the prospect that these mutated bnAbs will be immunogenic in humans, potentially compromising their value for prophylaxis and therapy of HIV-1.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0120451. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120451 · 3.53 Impact Factor