To investigate the expression patterns of bFGF and IGF-I in the growing goats with distracted cranial suture.
Coronal suture distraction was performed to 12 growing goats. The suture was expanded using a custom-made distractor with a rate of 0.4 mm/day for 8 days. Four goats were killed at 0, 2, and 4 weeks after the completion of suture distraction osteogenesis, respectively. The expanded sutures were harvested and processed for immunohistochemistry analysis of bFGF and IGF-I. Two goats without suture distraction were also examined as controls.
The coronal sutures were expanded successfully. At 0 and 2 weeks after the completion of suture distraction, collagen fiber bundles were strengthened and aligned in the direction of the distraction. Strong expressions of bFGF and IGF-I were detected in the distracted sutures. Expressions of bFGF appeared in the fibroblast-like cells and the osteoblasts cells. Positive signal of IGF-I was mainly localized to the osteoblasts and the newly formed osteocytes. The strongest expressions of bFGF and IGF-I were found 0-2 weeks after the completion of the suture distraction.
Distraction stimulates the production of bFGF and IGF-I, which may contribute to the formation and remodeling of new bones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gradual bone lengthening using distraction osteogenesis principles is the gold standard for the treatment of hypoplastic facial bones. However, the long treatment time is a major disadvantage of the lengthening procedures. The aim of this study is to review the current literature and summarize the cellular and molecular events occurring during membranous craniofacial distraction osteogenesis. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biological processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, osteogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Studies have implicated number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-β, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis has been best characterized and discussed. Understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone regeneration that may lead to shorten the treatment duration.
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