The C242T polymorphism of the NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox subunit is associated with an enhanced risk for cerebrovascular disease at a young age.
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress has been proposed as a major contributing factor for vascular disease, that acts independently from its participation in predisposing disorders such as diabetes and arterial hypertension. A functionally relevant C242T polymorphism of the CYBA gene encoding the NAD(P)H oxidase p22(phox) subunit, is supposed to lead to an abnormal reduction in the generation of reactive oxygen species in vascular smooth-muscle and endothelial cells.
We investigated the p22(phox) C242T single-nucleotide polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction in consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack under the age of 50 (n = 161) and in population-based control subjects (n = 136).
Homozygosity for the T variant was associated with an enhanced risk for cerebral ischemia (odds ratio 3.85, confidence interval 1.39-10.64) after adjusting for classical risk factors. Risk for cerebral ischemia was not increased in heterozygous subjects.
The p22(phox) C242T single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with stroke risk. This finding supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress may contribute to stroke pathogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: NAD(P)H oxidases are important sources of superoxide in the vasculature, the activity of which is associated with risk factors for human atherosclerosis. This study was designed to investigate the localization of superoxide production and the expression of the Nox family of NAD(P)H oxidase proteins (gp91phox, Nox1, and Nox4) in nonatherosclerotic and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries. In coronary artery segments from explanted human hearts, we examined intracellular superoxide production with dihydroethidium. In nonatherosclerotic coronary arteries, superoxide was present homogenously throughout the intima, media, and adventitia. In atherosclerotic arteries, there was an additional intense area of superoxide in the plaque shoulder, which is rich in macrophages and alpha-actin-positive cells. p22phox colocalized with gp91phox mainly in macrophages, whereas Nox4 was found only in nonphagocytic vascular cells. Expression of gp91phox and p22phox mRNA was associated with the severity of atherosclerosis. gp91phox correlated with the plaque macrophage content, whereas Nox4 correlated with the content of alpha-actin-positive cells. Nox1 expression was low both in human coronary arteries and isolated vascular cells. Several Nox proteins, including gp91phox and Nox4, may contribute to increased intracellular oxidative stress in human coronary atherosclerosis in a cell-specific manner and thus may be involved in the genesis and progression of human coronary atherosclerotic disease.Circulation 04/2002; 105(12):1429-35. · 15.20 Impact Factor
- European Journal of Clinical Investigation - EUR J CLIN INVEST. 01/1999; 29(9):744-748.
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ABSTRACT: Vascular remodeling generated by reactive oxygen species contributes to aneurysm formation. The NADPH oxidase system is a major source of superoxide anion not only in phagocytes, but also in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Polymorphisms of p22phox, an essential component of the NADPH oxidase system, are found to be associated with atherosclerosis, while a recent study found a significant association between the 214C>T polymorphism and the occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the relationship of five polymorphisms of the P22PHOX gene and the occurrence of cerebral aneurysms. The study population consisted of 113 patients with intracranial aneurysms and 53 control subjects. The 214C>T polymorphism was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, while polymorphisms 381T>C, 480G>A, 521C>T, and *24A>G were analyzed by direct sequencing of exon 6 and adjacent intronic sequences. The analysis of a primary study sample comprising 35 cases and 28 controls failed to show a significant association between any of the five polymorphisms and the occurrence of intracranial aneurysms using both allele frequencies and genotypes (all nominal p > 0.05). Although there was a deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in cases at the 521C>T locus (nominal p < 0.05), this could not be confirmed in a second study sample of 78 patients. Haplotypes were constructed regarding three frequent polymorphisms (214C>T, 521C>T, and *24A>G); haplotype frequencies in cases and controls were not significantly different. Although polymorphisms of the P22PHOX gene located in the coding region and the 3'-untranslated region were reported to be associated with atherosclerosis and cerebrovascular disease, our data provide evidence that there is no association between these polymorphisms and the occurrence of cerebral aneurysms in Caucasians.Cerebrovascular Diseases 01/2003; 16(4):363-8. · 2.81 Impact Factor