Cysteine synthase (CysM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an O-phosphoserine sulfhydrylase: evidence for an alternative cysteine biosynthesis pathway in mycobacteria.
ABSTRACT The biosynthesis of cysteine is a crucial metabolic pathway supplying a building block for de novo protein synthesis but also a reduced thiol as a component of the oxidative defense mechanisms that appear particularly vital in the dormant state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We here show that the cysteine synthase CysM is, in contrast to previous annotations, an O-phosphoserine-specific cysteine synthase. CysM belongs to the fold type II pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, as revealed by the crystal structure determined at 2.1-angstroms resolution. A model of O-phosphoserine bound to the enzyme suggests a hydrogen bonding interaction of the side chain of Arg220 with the phosphate group as a key feature in substrate selectivity. Replacement of this residue results in a significant loss of specificity for O-phosphoserine. Notably, reactions with sulfur donors are not affected by the amino acid replacement. The specificity of CysM toward O-phosphoserine together with the previously established novel mode of sulfur delivery via thiocarboxylated CysO (Burns, K. E., Baumgart, S., Dorrestein, P. C., Zhai, H., McLafferty, F. W., and Begley, T. P. (2005) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11602-11603) provide strong evidence for an O-phosphoserine-based cysteine biosynthesis pathway in M. tuberculosis that is independent of both O-acetylserine and the sulfate reduction pathway. The existence of an alternative biosynthetic pathway to cysteine in this pathogen has implications for the design strategy aimed at inhibition of this metabolic route.
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ABSTRACT: DcsE, one of the enzymes found in the d-cycloserine biosynthetic pathway, displays a high sequence homology to l-homoserine O-acetyltransferase (HAT), but it prefers l-serine over l-homoserine as the substrate. To clarify the substrate specificity, in the present study we determined the crystal structure of DcsE at a 1.81 Å resolution, showing that the overall structure of DcsE is similar to that of HAT, whereas a turn region to form an oxyanion hole is obviously different between DcsE and HAT: in detail, the first and last residues in the turn of DcsE are Gly(52) and Pro(55), respectively, but those of HAT are Ala and Gly. In addition, more water molecules were laid on one side of the turn region of DcsE than on that of HAT, and a robust hydrogen-bonding network was formed only in DcsE. We created a HAT-like mutant of DcsE in which Gly(52) and Pro(55) were replaced by Ala and Gly, respectively, showing that the mutant acetylates l-homoserine but scarcely l-serine. The crystal structure of the mutant DcsE shows that the active site, including the turn and its surrounding waters, is similar to that of HAT. These findings suggest that a methyl group of the first residue in the turn of HAT plays a role in excluding the binding of l-serine to the substrate-binding pocket. In contrast, the side chain of the last residue in the turn of DcsE may need to form an extensive hydrogen-bonding network on the turn, which interferes with the binding of l-homoserine.Journal of bacteriology 02/2013; · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The physical organization of enzymes in metabolism is an old concept being revisited by new experimental approaches. In plants and microbes, the enzymes of cysteine biosynthesis-serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS)-form a bi-enzyme complex called the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC), which likely plays a role in modulating cysteine biosynthesis in response to sulfur nutrient state. Structural and biochemical studies of SAT and OASS as individual enzymes and recent advances in structural, biophysical, and in vivo analysis of the CRC provide new insights on the function of this macromolecular assembly in plants and microbes and opens biotechnology and pharmaceutical opportunities for future exploration.Current Opinion in Structural Biology 03/2013; · 8.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is the leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Over the course of its life cycle in vivo, Mtb is exposed to a plethora of environmental stress conditions. Temporal regulation of genes involved in sensing and responding to such conditions is therefore crucial for Mtb to establish an infection. The Rv2745c (clgR) gene encodes a Clp protease gene regulator that is induced in response to a variety of stress conditions and potentially plays a role in Mtb pathogenesis. Our isogenic mutant, Mtb:ΔRv2745c, is significantly more sensitive to in vitro redox stress generated by diamide, relative to wild-type Mtb as well as to a complemented strain. Together with the fact that the expression of Rv2745c is strongly induced in response to redox stress, these results strongly implicate a role for ClgR in the management of intraphagosomal redox stress. Additionally, we observed that redox stress led to the dysregulation of the expression of the σH/σE regulon in the isogenic mutant, Mtb:ΔRv2745c. Furthermore, induction of clgR in Mtb and Mtb:ΔRv2745c (comp) did not lead to Clp protease induction, indicating that clgR has additional functions that need to be elucidated. Our data, when taken together with that obtained by other groups, indicates that ClgR plays diverse roles in multiple regulatory networks in response to different stress conditions. In addition to redox stress, the expression of Rv2745c correlates with the expression of genes involved in sulfate assimilation as well as in response to hypoxia and reaeration. Clearly, the Mtb Rv2745c-encoded ClgR performs different functions during stress response and is important for the pathogenicity of Mtb in-vivo, regardless of its induction of the Clp proteolytic pathway.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e93604. · 3.53 Impact Factor