Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Medical Disorders and Laboratory Abnormalities in Adults

Epidemiology and Public Health Group, Peninsula Medical School, Barrack Rd, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 10/2008; 300(11):1303-10. DOI: 10.1001/jama.300.11.1303
Source: PubMed


Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in epoxy resins lining food and beverage containers. Evidence of effects in animals has generated concern over low-level chronic exposures in humans.
To examine associations between urinary BPA concentrations and adult health status.
Cross-sectional analysis of BPA concentrations and health status in the general adult population of the United States, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Participants were 1455 adults aged 18 through 74 years with measured urinary BPA and urine creatinine concentrations. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, and urinary creatinine concentration. The sample provided 80% power to detect unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.4 for diagnoses of 5% prevalence per 1-SD change in BPA concentration, or standardized regression coefficients of 0.075 for liver enzyme concentrations, at a significance level of P < .05.
Chronic disease diagnoses plus blood markers of liver function, glucose homeostasis, inflammation, and lipid changes.
Higher urinary BPA concentrations were associated with cardiovascular diagnoses in age-, sex-, and fully adjusted models (OR per 1-SD increase in BPA concentration, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.63; P = .001 with full adjustment). Higher BPA concentrations were also associated with diabetes (OR per 1-SD increase in BPA concentration, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.60; P < .001) but not with other studied common diseases. In addition, higher BPA concentrations were associated with clinically abnormal concentrations of the liver enzymes gamma-glutamyltransferase (OR per 1-SD increase in BPA concentration, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14-1.46; P < .001) and alkaline phosphatase (OR per 1-SD increase in BPA concentration, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85; P = .002).
Higher BPA exposure, reflected in higher urinary concentrations of BPA, may be associated with avoidable morbidity in the community-dwelling adult population.

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    • "In 2008, Lang, et al. reported the levels of urinary BPA in samples collected by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of U.S. adults that had also completed a health survey [36]. No association between elevated BPA concentrations and cancer was evident. "
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    ABSTRACT: The estrogenic properties of bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous synthetic monomer that can leach into the food and water supply, have prompted considerable research into exposure-associated health risks in humans. Endocrine-disrupting properties of BPA suggest it may impact developmental plasticity during early life, predisposing individuals to disease at doses below the oral reference dose (RfD) established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1982. Herein, we review the current in vivo literature evaluating the carcinogenic properties of BPA. We conclude that there is substantial evidence from rodent studies indicating that early-life BPA exposures below the RfD lead to increased susceptibility to mammary and prostate cancer. Based on the definitions of "carcinogen" put forth by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program, we propose that BPA may be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the breast and prostate due to its tumor promoting properties.
    Reproductive Toxicology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.09.006 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, BPA is capable of inducing toxic effect on nonreproductive vital organs; several studies in the literature have reported absorption of large amounts of BPA through skin which has been shown to cause extensive damage to the liver and kidney in humans (Suarez et al., 2000). Moreover, it was evidenced that there was a significant relationship between urine concentration of BPA and cardiovascular disorders, type 2 diabetes and liver enzyme abnormalities in a representative sample of US population (Lang et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting compound widely spread in our living environment. It is a contaminant with increasing exposure to it and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on mammalian cells. Due to the limited information concerning the effect of BPA on the liver, the present study was designed to assess hepatic tissue injury induced by early life exposure to BPA in female rat offspring. Rat dams (n = 9) were gavaged with 0.5 and 50 mg of BPA/kg b.w./day throughout lactation until weaning. The sham group received olive oil for the same duration while the control group did not receive any injection. The liver tissue was collected from female pups at different pubertal periods (PND50, 90 and 110) to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers, extent of DNA damage and histopathological changes. Our results indicated that early life exposure to BPA significantly increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, induced DNA damage and chronic severe inflammation in the hepatic tissue in a time dependent manner. These data suggested that BPA causes long-term adverse effects on the liver, which leads to deleterious effects in the liver of female rat offspring.
    08/2015; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.jobaz.2015.01.006
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    • "BPA, BPS, and BPF have been shown to be toxic in many laboratory animal studies, and most notably, these compounds elicit weak estrogenic activities [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. Human exposure to BPA has been linked to endocrine disorders and obesity [10] [11]. Bisphenols have been frequently found in consumer products such as thermal receipt papers [3], currency bills [3] [12], personal care products [13], foodstuffs, and polycarbonate plastic bottles [5,14–16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: As health concerns over bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products are mounting, this weak estrogen mimicking compound is gradually being replaced with structural analogs, whose environmental occurrence and estrogen risks are not well understood yet. We used high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of eight bisphenol analogs in 76 sewage sludge samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006/2007 from 74 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 35 states. Bisphenols were detected at the following concentration ranges (ng/g dry weight) and detection frequencies: BPA (6.5-4700; 100%); bisphenol S (BPS; <1.79-1480; 84%); bisphenol F (BPF; <1.79-242; 68%); bisphenol AF (BPAF; <1.79-72.2; 46%); bisphenol P (BPP; <1.79-6.42; <5%), bisphenol B (BPB; <1.79-5.60; <5%), and bisphenol Z (BPZ; <1.79--66.7; <5%). Bisphenol AP (BPAP) was not detected in any of the samples (<1.79ng/gdw). Concentrations of BPA in sewage sludge were an order of magnitude higher than those reported in China but similar to those in Germany. The calculated 17β-estradiol equivalents (E2EQ) of bisphenols present in sludge samples were 7.74 (0.26-90.5)pg/gdw, which were three orders of magnitude lower than the estrogenic activity contributed by natural estrogens present in the sludge. The calculated mass loading of bisphenols through the disposal of sludge and wastewater was <0.02% of the total U.S. production. As the usage of BPA is expected to decline further, environmental emissions of BPS, BPF, and BPAF are likely to increase in the future. This study establishes baseline levels and estrogenic activity of diverse bisphenol analogs in sewage sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2015; 299:733-739. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.07.012 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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