Phytoremediation: Using Green Plants To Clean Up Contaminated Soil, Groundwater, And Wastewater

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ABSTRACT Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive compounds in soil or water. A greenhouse experiment on zinc uptake in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data from Applied Natural Sciences, Inc. (our CRADA partner), indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 g/g [ppm]) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from lysimeter pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root sys...

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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the natural and chemically enhanced phytoextraction ability of Eleusine indica (grass). Three sets of laboratory pot experiment were conducted. Viable seeds of the grass were seeded into one kilogram of the experimental soil placed in each plastic pot. The shoot, root and the experimental soil around root were analyzed for the preliminary levels of the heavy metals: Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co) and Lead (Pb). The preliminary levels of Cu, Cd, Cr, Co and Pb in soil, root and shoot of the grass are: soils: 104.5, 5.1, 36.4, 13.3, 14.4 μg/g; root: 164.2, 4.3, 153.9, 11.5 and 24.7 μg/g and shoot of the grass are: 111.5, 2.9, 51.2, 11.1, and 60.7 μg/g respectively. The phytoextraction ability was assessed in terms of its metal transfer factors; Enrichment Coefficient (EC) and Translocation Factor (TF). Copper, Chromium and Lead had the highest EC of 1.07, 1.41 and 4.22 respectively. The levels of the elements in the roots and shoots of the grass at the end of the laboratory experiment shows that more than the bioavailable pool of Cu, Cd, Cr Co and Pb were taken up in the roots with slow translocation of Pb to the shoot: t 1 Cu 236.0 to 108.2 μgg -1 root-shoot; t 2 Cu 137.5 to 316.8 μgg -1 root to shoot; t 1 Cr 228 to 84.3 μgg -1 root-shoot; t 2 Cr 242.6 to 94.2 μgg -1 root to shoot; t 1 Pb 54.8 to 176.2 μgg -1 root to shoot and t 2 Pb 96.0 to 326.0 μgg -1 root-shoot. Inductively Coupled Plasma to Optical Emission Spectroscopy -ICP-OES (for Pb determination) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) (for Cu, Cr, Cd and Co determination) were used for heavy metals determination in this study. The grass showed relatively good response to EDTA application and the higher levels of Cu and Cr concentration in the root suggested that the grass may be a good metal excluder with the possibility of extracting Pb from contaminated soils.
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    ABSTRACT: Volume of domestic or household waste increased by 5 millions meter cubic per year, with an increase in the average content of up to 50%. Components in the domestic waste water can lead to imbalances disrupt aquatic ecosystems and human health, such as the presence of Escherichia coli, and the possible presence of hazardous substances such as elemental N, P, As, Cr, and Se which can lead to poisoning of fish, birds and mammals. Bioremediation is the application of biotechnology domestic wastewater utilizing living things include plants and animals as agents of degrading pollutants. This research uses a consortium of Eichhornia crassipes (F1), Salvinia molesta (F2), Ceratophyllum demersum (F3), as well as aquatic animals Anodonta woodiana (Z1) and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Z2) because it has a high potential to degrade or absorbing compounds in domestic wastewater. Experiments using Randomized Complete Design (RCD), 12 treatments and 3 replicates. Observed levels of efficiency (Ef) and the rate of degradation (Ld) or rate of gradation (Lg). Observations of turbidity, color and froth domestic wastewater done for 14 days. Testing or measurement of physical and chemical properties at day-0, the 1 st , 3 rd and 5 th. The results revealed a consortium F1F2F3Z1Z2 on turbidity Ef 86%─Ld 14 mg/L/day, BOD Ef 70%─Ld 19 mg/L/day, COD Ef 67%─Ld 31 mg/L/day and clear the fastest on day 4; consortium F2F3Z2 on ammonia Ef 95%─Ld 0.62 mg/L/day, nitric Ef 91%─Ld 0.11 mg/L/day and the lowest gradation TDSEf 0%─Ld 0 mg/L/day, F1F2F3Z1 consortium gradation lowest TSS Ef 50%─Lg 1 mg/L/day, and a consortium F1F3Z1 Ef 77%─Ld 1.30 mg/L/day in nitrate.
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May 30, 2014