Phytoremediation: Using Green Plants To Clean Up Contaminated Soil, Groundwater, And Wastewater

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ABSTRACT Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive compounds in soil or water. A greenhouse experiment on zinc uptake in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data from Applied Natural Sciences, Inc. (our CRADA partner), indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 g/g [ppm]) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from lysimeter pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root sys...

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    ABSTRACT: Plants can remove or immobilize various envi-ronmental contaminants; however, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying responses to soil amendment with biosolids contaminated with heavy metals. We investigated the responses of cuttings of hybrid poplar clones Eridano and I-214 grown for a season in soil amended with nutrient-rich organic material from tanneries, which contains potentially toxic amounts of heavy elements. Plant growth traits, gas exchange parameters, stomatal density and leaf layer thickness of frozen-hydrated leaves, and foliar con-centrations of heavy metals and nitrogen were determined. Overall, soil amendment increased net assimilation rate and growth, but the cuttings accumulated only small quantities of heavy metal soil contaminants.
    Tree Physiology 01/2004; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Range finding test is a first step of phytotoxicity test that aims to determine the concentration of lead which can be uptaken by a plant species. In this study, range finding test was carried out to Scirpus grossus, to obtain the minimum concentration of Lead (Pb) which will give effect on the plant growth. The obtained concentration will be used as a based concentration in conducting the next phytotoxicity study. The study was conducted in a batch system for an observation period of 7 weeks and sampling was done weekly. Three plants of Scirpus grossus were planted in each container of a volume 5 L using sand medium and spiked water. The spiked water contained soluble Pb 2+ ions in different concentration of 50, 100, 200, 350, 500, 650 and 800 mg/L. The results showed that the concentrations of 350 and 500 mg/L had withered 33.33% and 66.67% of the plants respectively, whilst 100% of the plants were withered in 650 and 800 mg/L containers. The wet and dry weight of plant was also measured to determine the plant biomass. The dry weight (y) was correlated to the wet weight (x) through a regression line y=0.261x-1.4636 with R 2 =0.885.
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    ABSTRACT: Poplars and willows can accumulate high concentrations of some trace elements. We investigated the extent and nature of B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn accumulation in some commercial poplar and willow clones by using a lysimeter ex-periment and field collection of data. Trace element accumulation was a function of leaf age and the variety or species of tree. Leaf B, Cd, Mn, and Zn concentrations increased throughout the season, while Cu decreased and Fe remained unchanged. Poplars and willows accumulated high concentra-tions of the trace elements tested, relative to pasture. The accumulation of Cd is of concern, especially in willows. Stock exposure to Cd can be managed by judicious clone selection, harvesting young shoots, or harvesting early in the season. Poplars and wil-lows may be used as feed supplements to increase Co and Zn intake by livestock. The varieties 'Yeogi' and 'Crow's Nest' accumulated the highest concen-trations of Co, yet their Cd concentrations were not significantly higher than pasture.
    New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 01/2005; 4805:489-497. · 0.84 Impact Factor

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May 30, 2014