A phase II clinical trial of poly-ICLC with radiation for adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma: A North American Brain Tumor Consortium (NABTC01-05)

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0350, USA.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.07). 10/2008; 91(2):175-82. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-008-9693-3
Source: PubMed


This phase II study was designed to determine the overall survival time of adults with supratentorial glioblastoma treated with the immune modulator, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC), in combination with and following radiation therapy (RT).
This was an open-label, single arm phase II study. Patients were treated with RT in combination with poly-ICLC followed by poly-ICLC as a single agent. Poly-ICLC was initiated 7-28 days after the surgical procedure that established the diagnosis; radiotherapy began within 7 days of the first dose of poly-ICLC and within 35 days of surgical diagnosis. Treatment with poly-ICLC continued following the completion of RT to a maximum of 1 year or until tumor progression.
31 patients were enrolled in this study. One patient did not have a Glioblastoma mutiforme and was deemed ineligible. For the 30 eligible patients, time to progression was known for 27 patients and 3 were censored. The estimated 6-month progression-free survival was 30% and the estimated 1-year progression-free survival was 5%. Median time to progression was as 18 weeks. The 1-year survival was 69% and the median survival was 65 weeks.
The combined therapy was relatively well-tolerated. This study suggests a survival advantage compared to historical studies using RT without chemotherapy but no survival advantage compared to RT with adjuvant nitrosourea or non-temozolomide chemotherapy. Our results suggest that poly-ICLC has activity against glioblastoma and may be worth further study in combination with agents such as temozolomide.

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Available from: Michael Prados, Feb 03, 2014
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    • "Twenty-two patients with recurrent malignant glioma (13 of whom had GBM) were treated with intranodal injections of αDC1 loaded with synthetic peptides for EphA2, IL13Rα2, YKL-40, and gp100 HLA-A2 restricted epitopes in this phase I/II study. Poly-ICLC, which has been used in previous clinical trials to treat patients with GBM [63, 64], was administered intramuscularly as an adjuvant in accordance with data demonstrating its ability to boost postvaccination immune response and to promote T cell infiltration into the tumor [34, 65]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This phase II study was designed to determine the objective response rate and 6-month progression free survival of adult patients with recurrent supratentorial anaplastic glioma when treated with the immune modulator, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC). This was an open-labeled, single arm phase II study. Patients were treated with poly-ICLC alone. Patients may have had treatment for no more than two prior relapses. Treatment with poly-ICLC continued until tumor progression. Fifty five patients were enrolled in the study. Ten were ineligible after central review of pathology. Eleven percent of patients (5 of 45) had a radiographic response. Time to progression was known for 39 patients and 6 remain on treatment. The estimated 6-month progression free survival was 24%. The median survival time was 43 weeks. Poly-ICLC was well tolerated, but there was no improvement in 6-month progression free survival compared to historical database nor was there an encouraging objective radiographic response rate. Based on this study, poly-ICLC does not improve 6moPFS in patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas but may be worth further study in combination with agents such as temozolomide.
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    ABSTRACT: Although the safety of vaccine approaches for central nervous system (CNS) malignancies has been established in early phase clinical trials, the success of a vaccine strategy will depend critically on the ability of effector T cells to home in to CNS tumors and durably exert antitumor effects. Based on our recent studies, efficient CNS tumor homing is a characteristic of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with a type 1 phenotype (Tc1), and this appears to be related to the Tc1 response to the type 1 CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 10 [also known as interferon (IFN)-inducible protein (IP)-10] and expression of an integrin receptor very late antigen (VLA)-4 on Tc1. In addition, we have previously shown that direct intratumoral delivery of dendritic cells (DCs) ex vivo engineered to secrete IFN-alpha further enhances Tc1 homing via upregulation of CXCL10/IP-10 in the tumor microenvironment. As a means to induce IFN-alpha and CXCL10/IP-10 in the CNS tumor microenvironment in a clinically feasible manner, we used administration of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized by lysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC), a ligand for toll-like receptor 3 and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in combination with vaccinations targeting CTL epitopes derived from glioma-associated antigens (GAAs). The combination of subcutaneous vaccination and i.m. poly-ICLC administration remarkably promoted systemic induction of antigen GAA-specific Tc1s expressing VLA-4 in the CNS tumors and improved the survival of tumor-bearing mice in the absence of detectable autoimmunity. Based on these data, we have implemented a phase I/II vaccination study using type 1 polarizing DCs loaded with GAA peptides in combination with poly-ICLC in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
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