Crude ethanol extract from babassu (Orbignya speciosa): cytotoxicity on tumoral and non-tumoral cell lines
ABSTRACT Plant-derived substances have been considered as important sources of drugs, including antineoplasic agents. Babassu mesocarp is popularly used in Brazil as a food additive, and in popular medicine against several conditions, such as inflammations, menstrual pains and leukaemia. From babassu Orbignya speciosa (Mart.) Barb. Rodr. [Arecaceae (Palmae)] epicarp/mesocarp, an ethanol extract was prepared and named OSEME, which was tested on the viability,morphology and metabolism of several cell lines, such as the leukaemic cell lines, HL-60, K562 and the latter multidrug resistant counterpart K562-Lucena 1, the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T3-L1 and fresh human lymphocytes. OSEME promoted a dose-dependent decrease on the viability of all cells. This effect was much more pronounced on the tumoral cell lines than on non-tumoral cells, a phenomenon revealed by the dose of OSEME which promotes half of maximal effect (ID50). The decrease on viability was followed by shrinkage of cells, alteration on their morphology, and a markedly nuclear condensation. Curiously, stimulation of 6-phosphofructokinase activity (6.6-times) was observed on HL-60 cells, treated with OSEME, when compared to control treated with ethanol (vehicle). These results support evidences to suggest OSEME as a promising source of novel antineoplasic agents.
SourceAvailable from: Rosane N Guerra[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The safety of babassu mesocarp (Orbignya phalerata Mart., Arecaceae), which exhibited anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities, was evaluated by determining the potential acute toxicity in mice. A lyophilized ethanol extract of babassu mesocarp (BME) was administered to C3H/HePas mice (10/group) in a single dose of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg, by gavage. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to fourteen days. Selected biochemical parameters including glucose, triacylglyceride, cholesterol, urea, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were determined by colorimetric assay. The heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were weighted and evaluated macro and microscopically. The median lethal dose (LD50) of BME was greater than 5000 mg/kg. No behavior or body weight alterations were detected after the treatment. The acute treatment with BME has no effect on macroscopic and microscopic aspect of examined organs. Instead, BME increased the alkaline phosphatase and reduced the urea concentration in all groups. A significant increase on triacylglyceride was detected in the group BME1000. In conclusion, the acute treatment with high doses of BME can affect some biochemical parameters with a long lasting effect, although any change was detected at tissue level or body and organ weight.Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 08/2011; 21(4):710-714. DOI:10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000121 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Couroupita guianensis Aublet, 'macacarecuia', 'abricó-de-macaco', 'castanha-de-macaco' and 'amêndoa-dos-andes', is found in tropical regions and widely used in the treatment of tumors, pain, and inflammatory processes. AIM OF THE STUDY: Ethanol extract and hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated in models of inflammatory pain (formalin-induced licking) and acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced peritonitis). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanol extract, hexane and ethyl acetate fractions (10, 30 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) and the references drugs dexamethasone (5mg/kg), morphine (5mg/kg, s.c.), and acetylsalicylic acid (100mg/kg, p.o.) were tested in formalin-induced licking response and carrageenan-induced peritonitis. RESULTS: All three doses from C. guianensis fractions significantly reduced the time that the animal spent licking the formalin-injected paw in first and second phases. However, only higher doses (30 and 100mg/kg) were able to inhibit the leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity after carrageenan injection. In this model, the 100mg/kg dose almost abolished the cell migration. In was also observed that protein concentration resulted from extravasation to the peritoneum and nitric oxide (NO) productions were significantly reduced. Cytokines productions were differently affected by the treatment. TNF-α production was reduced after ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction pre-treatment whereas hexane fraction had effect only with 100mg/kg dose. IL-1β production was inhibited only after hexane fraction pre-treatment. The inhibitory effect observed was not due to a direct cytotoxic effect on cells nor to a NO-scavenger activity. The effect was due to a direct inhibition on NO production by the cells. CONCLUSIONS: the results show that C. guianensis fractions have anti-inflammatory effect, partly due to a reduction on cell migration and a inhibition on cytokines and inflammatory mediators production.Journal of ethnopharmacology 01/2013; 146(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.12.053 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The plants used in traditional medicine have been considered an important source of molecules with pharmacological activity, including antitumor. The aim of this study was to present a pharmacological description and the phytochemical components related to antitumor activity of thirty plants commonly cited in Brazil to treat tumors as well as offering an overview of approaches that are necessary for the development of herbal medicines from these resources. In the search for studies with these plants, five database were used (SciELO, Scirus, Scopus, Biological Abstracts and Web of Science), with the following keywords: tumor AND Species AND cancer. We consider all the scientific synonyms of species available in the Tropicos® database (http://www.tropicos.org/). We surveyed papers from the period between 1980 and 2008. Twnety one species (70%) have at least one evaluation of a class of molecule or metabolite isolated against a pharmacological model. Most species (60%) has in vivo studies. Of the thirty plant species, two stood out for having pharmacological studies in vitro, in vivo and clinical with positive results: Chelidonium majus L., Papaveraceae, and Aloe arborescens Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae. Although there is generally a good activity of species presented here, there is a need for further studies in order to evaluate the possibility of developing some byproduct.Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 08/2011; 21(4):744-753. DOI:10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000087 · 0.80 Impact Factor