Review of strategies to recruit smokers for smoking cessation: a population impact perspective.
ABSTRACT This paper reviews published articles describing several instruments used currently to "capture" the attention of smokers for quit-smoking interventions and emphasizes the distinction between the strategies used to reach eligible individuals and those used to recruit them for the proposed smoking cessation intervention. The search for articles was conducted using MEDLINE, PsychARTICLE, and LILACS. Key words for the search included recruitment, enrollment, reach, smoking cessation, quitline, and helpline mentioned in the abstracts and titles of the articles. Articles published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish through November 2006 that emphasized capture instruments related to different populations and specific interventions were included in this review. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies that used active and mixed strategies reached, on average, a smaller and less diverse possible number of eligible individuals and had greater participation proportions than those that used reactive strategies. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of new associations between current interventions and reactive capture strategies, in view of the potential for increasing the population impact related to reactive capture.
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ABSTRACT: According to the World Health Organization, smoking is an important cause of death worldwide. To encourage smoking cessation, persuasive messages can be used to raise smokers' risk perception. This article discusses challenges and solutions in designing a study to evaluate the effect of two different communication strategies ("gains from quitting" vs. "losses from continuing smoking") in encouraging calls to a quitline. The authors conducted an intervention study in two subway stations for 4 weeks, considering only 1 strategy per station. Large posters containing non-age-specific images and texts, on the basis of the theme"shortness of breath," were displayed on central dividing columns on the boarding platforms. Call rates from the selected stations, and respective rate ratios, overall and per study week, were calculated. Passengers who were smokers, exposed to the positive-content message, called on average 1.7 times more often than did those exposed to the negative-content message (p = .01). Moreover, call rate ratios did not decline over the 4 weeks of the study (p = .40). The effectiveness findings suggest that antismoking campaigns could use positive-content messages in order to recruit a larger smoker population. The proposed methodology can also be used to evaluate effectiveness of messages for "capturing" individuals with other health problems (e.g., alcohol abuse), thereby increasing its potential impact.Journal of Health Communication 04/2012; 17(8):899-914. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We discuss some of the practical and ethical questions that may arise for a jurisdiction where a sinking lid endgame strategy for tobacco supply is implemented. Such a strategy would involve regular required reductions in the amount of tobacco released to the market for sale, sufficient to achieve the desired level of commercial sales by a target date. Tobacco manufacturers would periodically bid to the government for a residual quota. Prices would increase as supply reduced. The price level would be influenced by demand, which in turn would reflect the impact of other interventions to reduce demand and the changing normality of smoking. Higher priced tobacco could result in increased smuggling, theft, illegal sales and short-to-medium-term aggravation of some social inequalities. We suggest that the strategy be introduced in conjunction with a range of complementary interventions that would help reduce demand, and thus help ensure that the possible adverse effects are minimised. These complementary interventions include: providing comprehensive best practice smoking cessation support, better information to smokers and the public, strengthened regulation of tobacco retailing and supply, further controlling the pack and product design, measures to restrict supplies that bypass the increases in product price, strengthened enforcement and combating industry attacks. General prerequisites for a sinking lid strategy include public support for the goal of a tobacco-free society, and strong political leadership. The likely context for initial success in jurisdictions includes geographical isolation and/or strong border controls, absence of significant tobacco production and/or manufacturing and low government corruption.Tobacco control 10/2010; 19(5):431-5. · 3.85 Impact Factor