Epidemiology of Rhodotorula: An Emerging Pathogen

Section of Infectious Diseases, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Ramiro Barcelos 2350, 90640-002 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 10/2012; 2012(4):465717. DOI: 10.1155/2012/465717
Source: PubMed


This is an updated paper focusing on the general epidemiological aspects of Rhodotorula in humans, animals, and the environment. Previously considered nonpathogenic, Rhodotorula species have emerged as opportunistic pathogens that have the ability to colonise and infect susceptible patients. Rhodotorula species are ubiquitous saprophytic yeasts that can be recovered from many environmental sources. Several authors describe the isolation of this fungus from different ecosystems, including sites with unfavourable conditions. Compared to R. mucilaginosa, R. glutinis and R. minuta are less frequently isolated from natural environments. Among the few references to the pathogenicity of Rhodotorula spp. in animals, there are several reports of an outbreak of skin infections in chickens and sea animals and lung infections and otitis in sheep and cattle. Most of the cases of infection due to Rhodotorula in humans were fungemia associated with central venous catheter (CVC) use. The most common underlying diseases included solid and haematologic malignancies in patients who were receiving corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs, the presence of CVC, and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Unlike fungemia, some of the other localised infections caused by Rhodotorula, including meningeal, skin, ocular, peritoneal, and prosthetic joint infections, are not necessarily linked to the use of CVCs or immunosuppression.

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Available from: Fernanda Wirth, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Localized infections without fungemia, including endophthalmitis, onychomycosis , and prosthetic joint infections, have been reported in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals (Wirth and Goldani 2012). In the ARTEMIS surveillance project, Rhodotorula species were the fourth most common non-Candida yeast isolated from clinical specimens (Miceli et al. 2011), with R. mucilaginosa frequently reported as the most commonly involved species (Wirth and Goldani 2012). In a study in Brazil, the main risk factors associated with the development of Rhodotorula fungemia were (i) solid and haematologic malignancies in patients who were receiving corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs, (ii) the presence of central venous catheters, and (iii) the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (Lunardi et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi have been recognized as important pathogens in high-risk patients. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of these microorganisms in the microbiota of captive rheas and to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of the isolated strains. Isolates representing Magnusiomyces capitatus (Geotrichum capitatum, n = 11), Trichosporon mucoides (n = 11), Trichosporon asteroides (n = 5), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (n = 4), Trichosporon asahii (n = 3), Trichosporon cutaneum (n = 3), and Trichosporon ovoides (n = 3) were obtained from the oropharynx, cloaca, and feces of 58 animals. Most of the isolates were susceptible to antifungals in vitro; however, resistance against fluconazole (n = 1) and itraconazole (n = 2) was detected among T. mucoides. This study indicates that healthy rheas can be reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. Primary resistance to azoles in T. mucoides obtained from these animals demonstrates the potential risk to humans.
    Canadian Journal of Microbiology 08/2013; 59(8):577-80. DOI:10.1139/cjm-2013-0176 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    • "and other fungi to form biofilms, which are generally highly resistant to conventional antifungal agents (Gomez-Lopez et al., 2005; Martinez & Fries, 2010; Nunes et al., 2013; Walraven & Lee, 2013). In combination, these observations have led to a growing view that food may be an underestimated source of environmental yeast pathogens and raised the disturbing possibility that the consumption of yeastinfected food could play a direct role in causing opportunistic infections (Wirth & Goldani, 2012). There is an urgent need for new antifungal compounds with novel mechanisms of action (Miceli et al., 2011), and major candidates to serve in this capacity, include photodynamic agents (Calzavara-Pinton et al., 2012; Harris & Pierpoint, 2012) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) (Matejuk et al., 2010; Desbois et al., 2011; Wilmes et al., 2011; Mehra et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fungal infections with multiple-resistance to conventional antifungals are increasingly becoming a medical problem and there is an urgent need for new antifungal compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Here, we show that aurein 2.5, a naturally occurring peptide antibiotic, displays activity against the fungal strains: Rhodotorula rubra and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (MICs < 130 μM). The peptide adopted high levels of membrane interactive α- helical structure (> 65%) in the presence of lipid membranes derived from these organisms and showed strong propensities to penetrate (π > = 13 mN m(-1) ) and lyse them (> 70%). Based on these data, we suggest that aurein 2.5 kills yeasts via membranolytic mechanisms and may act as a template for the development of therapeutically useful antifungal agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 07/2013; 346(2). DOI:10.1111/1574-6968.12212 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    • "lists reports of skin infections in chickens, and a lung infection in sheep caused by R. mucilaginosa. Infection with Rhodotorula spp. was also reported in a sea lion, cats, cattle, ostriches, birds, monkeys and camels (Wirth and Goldani, 2012 "
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    ABSTRACT: An 8-month-old crossbred ewe, normal upon physical examination, was humanely euthanized for tissue collection. After approximately 3 weeks in tissue culture, fungi began budding out of cells obtained from the choroid plexus. After an additional 3 weeks, budding was observed in kidney cell cultures and eventually in monocyte cultures as well. Serum from the lamb was submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Colorado State University for fungal diagnosis and was found negative for Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioidomycosis and Histoplasmosis. DNA was isolated from fungi collected from tissue culture supernatants and used in a set of pan-fungal PCR assays with DNA from Candida acting as a positive control. PCR products were sequenced and BLAST analysis performed. The unknown fungal sequence aligned with 100% identity to Rhodotorula minuta an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Samples were submitted to The Fungal Testing Laboratory at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio for additional validation. We believe this to be the first report of Rhodotorula fungemia in a sheep in the United States.
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 01/2013; 61(6). DOI:10.1111/tbed.12062 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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