Meis1 preserves hematopoietic stem cells in mice by limiting oxidative stress
ABSTRACT The transcription factor Meis1 is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and over-expressed in certain leukemias. However, the functions of Meis1 in hematopoiesis remain largely unknown. Using inducible knock-out mice, we found that Meis1 is required for the maintenance of hematopoiesis under stress and over long term while steady-state hematopoiesis was sustained in the absence of Meis1. Bone marrow cells of Meis1 deficient mice showed reduced colony formation, contained significantly fewer numbers of long- term HSCs and these Meis1-deficient HSCs exhibited loss of quiescence. Further, we found that Meis1 deletion led to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HSCs and decreased expression of genes implicated in hypoxia response. Finally, ROS scavenging by N-acetyl cysteine or stabilization of hypoxia-signaling by knockdown of the VHL protein led to reversal of the effects of Meis1-deletion. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Meis1 protects and preserves HSCs by restricting oxidative metabolism.
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ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in determining the fate of normal stem cells. Low levels of ROS are required for stem cells to maintain quiescence and self-renewal. Increases in ROS production cause stem cell proliferation/differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, leading to their exhaustion. Therefore, the production of ROS in stem cells is tightly regulated to ensure that they have the ability to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair damaged tissues for the life span of an organism. In this chapter, we discuss how the production of ROS in normal stem cells is regulated by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors and how the fate of these cells is altered by the dysregulation of ROS production under various pathological conditions. In addition, the implications of the aberrant production of ROS by tumor stem cells for tumor progression and treatment are also discussed.Advances in Cancer Research 01/2014; 122C:1-67. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-420117-0.00001-3
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcription co-regulator Cited2 is essential for mouse development. Recent work has shown that Cited2 plays important roles in normal hematopoiesis in fetal liver and adult bone marrow. This review focuses on the function of Cited2 in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and its potential role in the metabolic regulation of HSCs. RECENT FINDINGS: Fetal liver cells from Cited2 null embryos give rise to reduced numbers of hematopoietic colonies and display significantly impaired hematopoietic reconstitution capacity. In adult mice, conditional deletion of Cited2 markedly reduces the number of HSCs and compromises hematopoietic reconstitution in mice receiving a transplant of Cited2 deficient bone marrow cells. Additional deletion of Ink4a/Arf or p53 in a Cited2-deficient background restores HSC functionality. Meanwhile, Cited2 deficient HSCs display loss of quiescence, which can be partially rescued by additional deletion of hypoxia inducible factor-1α. SUMMARY: Cited2 is an essential regulator in fetal liver and adult hematopoiesis. Further studies into the function of Cited2 and the underlying mechanism in the metabolic regulation of HSCs will provide a better understanding of the connection between energy metabolism and HSC quiescence and self-renewal. Investigations of the pathologic role of Cited2 in leukemogenesis may yield useful information in developing effective therapeutic strategies.Current opinion in hematology 03/2013; DOI:10.1097/MOH.0b013e3283606022
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ABSTRACT: The capacity of the hematopoietic system to promptly respond to peripheral demands relies on adequate pools of progenitors able to transiently proliferate and differentiate in a regulated manner. However, little is known about factors that may restrain progenitor maturation to maintain their reservoirs. Conditional knockout mice for the Pbx1 proto-oncogene have a significant reduction in lineage-restricted progenitors in addition to a profound defect in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. Through analysis of purified progenitor proliferation, differentiation capacity and transcriptional profiling, we demonstrate that Pbx1 regulates the lineage-specific output of multipotent and oligopotent progenitors. In the absence of Pbx1 multipotent progenitor (MPP) and common myeloid progenitor (CMP) pools are reduced due to aberrantly rapid myeloid maturation. This is associated with premature expression of myeloid differentiation genes and decreased maintenance of proto-oncogene transcriptional pathways including reduced expression of Meis1, a Pbx1 dimerization partner, and its subordinate transcriptional program. Conversely, Pbx1 maintains lymphoid differentiation potential of lymphoid-primed MPPs (LMPPs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), whose reduction in the absence of Pbx1 is associated with a defect in lymphoid priming that is also present in CMPs, which persistently express lymphoid and HSC genes underlying a previously unappreciated lineage promiscuity that is maintained by Pbx1. These results demonstrate a role for Pbx1 in restraining myeloid maturation while maintaining lymphoid potential to appropriately regulate progenitor reservoirs.Journal of Cell Science 05/2013; 126(14). DOI:10.1242/jcs.125435