Osteoarthritis, inflammation and obesity.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is one of the main risk factors of the incidence and prevalence of knee osteoarthritis. Recent epidemiological data showing an increased risk of hand osteoarthritis in obese patients opened the door to a role of systemic inflammatory mediators, adipokines, released by adipose tissue. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experimental studies confirm the critical roles of adipokines in the pathophysiologic features of osteoarthritis, with an emphasis on a new member, chemerin. Animal models of diet-induced obesity show that overload cannot completely explain the aggravation of spontaneous or posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis. We now have data suggesting that some adipokines may be surrogate biomarkers for severity of osteoarthritis. SUMMARY: Preclinical studies targeting adipokines are now expected to provide new hope for patients with osteoarthritis, especially those with metabolic syndrome.
- SourceAvailable from: Elizabeth Weiss[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine whether BMI increases knee pain as measured from self-reported surveys even when controlling for OA severity as measured by osteophytes and joint space narrowing visible on X-rays.Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 06/2014; · 4.44 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic, low-grade inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) contributes to symptoms and disease progression. Effective disease-modifying OA therapies are lacking, but better understanding inflammatory pathophysiology in OA could lead to transformative therapy. Networks of diverse innate inflammatory danger signals, including complement and alarmins, are activated in OA. Through inflammatory mediators, biomechanical injury and oxidative stress compromise the viability of chondrocytes, reprogramming them to hypertrophic differentiation and proinflammatory and pro-catabolic responses. Integral to this reprogramming are 'switching' pathways in transcriptional networks, other than the well-characterized effects of NFκB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling; HIF-2α transcriptional signalling and ZIP8-mediated Zn(2+) uptake, with downstream MTF1 transcriptional signalling, have been implicated but further validation is required. Permissive factors, including impaired bioenergetics via altered mitochondrial function and decreased activity of bioenergy sensors, interact with molecular inflammatory responses and proteostasis mechanisms such as the unfolded protein response and autophagy. Bioenergy-sensing by AMPK and SIRT1 provides 'stop signals' for oxidative stress, inflammatory, and matrix catabolic processes in chondrocytes. The complexity of molecular inflammatory processes in OA and the involvement of multiple inflammatory mediators in tissue repair responses, raises daunting questions about how to therapeutically target inflammatory processes and macroscopic inflammation in OA. Bioenergy sensing might provide a pragmatic 'entry point'.Nature Reviews Rheumatology 09/2014; · 9.75 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective in this article is to test the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a factor in the onset and progression of osteoarthritis, and to characterise the quality of the articular cartilage in an appropriate rat model.Bone & joint research. 06/2014; 3(6):203-11.