Final 192-week efficacy and safety of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir compared with lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve patients in the ARTEMIS trial.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the final analysis of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) vs. lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults. METHODS: ARTEMIS (AntiRetroviral Therapy with TMC114 ExaMined In naïve Subjects; NCT00258557) was a randomized, open-label, phase-III, 192-week trial. Patients were stratified by baseline HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count, and randomized to once-daily DRV/r 800/100 mg or LPV/r 800/200 mg total daily dose (either once or twice daily) plus tenofovir/emtricitabine. RESULTS: Of 689 randomized patients receiving treatment (DRV/r: 343; LPV/r: 346), 85 and 114 patients in the DRV/r and LPV/r arms, respectively, had discontinued by week 192. Noninferiority was shown in the primary endpoint of virological response (HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL) [DRV/r: 68.8%; LPV/r: 57.2%; P < 0.001; intent to treat (ITT)/time to loss of virological response; estimated difference in response 11.6% (95% confidence interval 4.4-18.8%)]. Statistical superiority in virological response of DRV/r over LPV/r was demonstrated for the primary endpoint (P = 0.002) and for the ITT non-virological-failure-censored analysis (87.4% vs. 80.8%, respectively; P = 0.040). No protease inhibitor (PI) primary mutations developed and only low levels of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance developed in virological failures in both groups. Significantly fewer discontinuations because of adverse events were observed with DRV/r (4.7%) than with LPV/r (12.7%; P = 0.005). Grade 2-4 treatment-related diarrhoea was significantly less frequent with DRV/r than with LPV/r (5.0% vs. 11.3%, respectively; P = 0.003). DRV/r was associated with smaller median increases in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels than LPV/r. Changes in low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar between groups. Similar increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase for DRV/r and LPV/r were observed. CONCLUSION: Over 192 weeks, once-daily DRV/r was noninferior and statistically superior in virological response to LPV/r, with a more favourable gastrointestinal profile, demonstrating its suitability for long-term use in treatment-naïve patients.
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ABSTRACT: Cobicistat is an alternative pharmacoenhancer to ritonavir. In healthy volunteers, darunavir exposure was comparable when darunavir 800 mg once daily was co-administered with cobicistat 150 mg once daily (as single agents or a fixed-dose combination) vs. with ritonavir 100 mg once daily. This 48-week, Phase IIIb, single-arm, US multicenter study (NCT01440569) evaluated safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg once daily (as single agents) plus two investigator-selected nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs) in HIV-1-infected adults. Patients had no darunavir resistance-associated mutations (RAMs), plasma viral load (VL) ≥1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml, eGFR ≥80 ml/min and genotypic sensitivity to the two N[t]RTIs. The primary endpoint was any treatment-emergent grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs) through Week 24. The majority of the 313 intent-to-treat patients were treatment-naïve (295/313; 94%), male (89%), White (60%) and received a tenofovir-based regimen (99%). Median baseline VL and CD4(+) count overall were 4.8 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml and 361 cells/mm(3), respectively. Overall, 86% of patients (268/313) completed the study. The majority of discontinuations were for AEs (15/313; 5%). The incidence of treatment-emergent grade 3 or 4 AEs regardless of causality was 6% through Week 24 and 8% through Week 48. Most common AEs through Week 48 were diarrhea (27%) and nausea (23%), which were grade 1 or 2 in severity. Week 48 virologic response rates (% with VL <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml; Snapshot analysis) were 81% overall and 83% in treatment-naïve patients; median increases in CD4(+) count at 48 weeks were 167 and 169 cells/mm(3), respectively. Of 15/313 patients who met the criteria for resistance analysis, one developed a darunavir RAM as a mixture with wild-type (I84I/V), without phenotypic resistance to darunavir. The mean population pharmacokinetic-derived darunavir areas under the plasma concentration-time curve were 102,000 overall and 100,620 ng•h/ml in treatment-naïve patients. No clinically relevant relationships were seen between darunavir exposure and virologic response, AEs or laboratory parameters. Darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg once daily was generally well tolerated through Week 48, with no new safety concerns. Pharmacokinetics, virologic and immunologic responses for darunavir/cobicistat were similar to previous data for darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily.AIDS Research and Therapy 12/2014; 11:39. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-11-39 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this article, we review the options for initial antiretroviral therapy, including the data from clinical trials to support these choices and the factors to consider in selection of a regimen to best fit each patient.Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 09/2014; 28(3):421-438. DOI:10.1016/j.idc.2014.06.003 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Maximal and durable viral load suppression is one of the most important goals of HIV therapy and is directly related to adequate drug exposure. Protease inhibitors (PIs), an important component of the antiretroviral armada, were historically associated with poor oral bioavailability and high pill burden. However, because the PIs are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, intentional inhibition of these enzymes leads to higher drug exposure, lower pill burden, and therefore simplified dosing schedules with this class of drug. This is the basis of pharmacokinetic enhancement. In HIV therapy, two pharmacokinetic enhancers or boosting agents are used: ritonavir and cobicistat. Both agents inhibit CYP3A4, with cobicistat being a more specific CYP inhibitor than ritonavir. Unlike ritonavir, cobicistat does not have antiretroviral activity. Cobicistat has been evaluated in clinical trials and was recently approved in the USA as a fixed-dose combination with the integrase inhibitor, elvitegravir and two nucleos(t)ide analogs. Additional studies are examining cobicistat in fixed-dose combinations with various PIs. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of these agents and clinically relevant drug regimens and ongoing trials. Studies with elvitegravir and the novel PI TMC319011 are also discussed.Clinical Pharmacokinetics 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40262-014-0167-9 · 5.49 Impact Factor