Article

Comparative analysis of emm type pattern of Group A Streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India and their association with closely related SIC, a streptococcal virulence factor

Department of Experimental Medicine & Biotechnology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.
BMC Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.98). 10/2008; 8:150. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-8-150
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of life threatening diseases in humans and the incidence of such infections is high in developing countries like India. Although distribution of emm types of GAS in India has been described, there is a lack of data describing either the comparative distribution of emm types in throat versus skin isolates, or the distribution of certain virulence factors amongst these isolates. Therefore in the present study we have monitored the emm type pattern of Group A streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India. Additionally, the association of these isolates with closely related sic (crs), a multifunctional compliment binding virulence factor, was also explored.
Of the 94 (46 throat and 48 skin) isolates analyzed, 37 emm types were identified. The most frequently observed emm types were emm49 (8.5%) and emm112 (7.5%) followed by 6.5% each of emm1-2, emm75, emm77, and emm81. Out of 37 emm types, 27 have been previously reported and rest were isolated for the first time in the Indian Community. The predominant emm types of throat (emm49 and emm75) samples were different from those of skin (emm44, emm81 and emm112) samples. After screening all the 94 isolates, the crs gene was found in six emm1-2 (crs1-2) isolates, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing and expression analysis. Despite the polymorphic nature of crs, no intravariation was observed within crs1-2. However, insertions and deletions of highly variable sizes were noticed in comparison to CRS isolated from other emm types (emm1.0, emm57). CRS1-2 showed maximum homology with CRS57, but the genomic location of crs1-2 was found to be the same as that of sic1.0. Further, among crs positive isolates, speA was only present in skin samples thus suggesting possible role of speA in tissue tropism.
Despite the diversity in emm type pattern of throat and skin isolates, no significant association between emm type and source of isolation was observed. The finding that the crs gene is highly conserved even in two different variants of emm1-2 GAS (speA +ve and -ve) suggests a single allele of crs may be prevalent in the highly diverse throat and skin isolates of GAS in India.

0 Followers
 · 
74 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, the prevalence of M types of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) in North India, invasive behavior of prevalent M types, and inflammatory immune response by host cells were studied. A total of 1,047 clinical samples were collected between 2004 and 2010. Confirmation of GAS was determined by serotyping and M types were identified by emm gene sequencing. The most prevalent serotypes were selected to study their invasive behavior and inflammatory immune response under different temperatures and salt concentrations in A549 and HEp-2 cells. Ninety-two isolates were identified as GAS of which 17 were M types with 18.5% heterogeneity. The most prevalent M types were M1 (21.73%) and M49 (8.7%), respectively. M1 and M49 were used to study virulence potential and inflammatory immune responses. The efficiency of cell infection decreased with increased temperature for both M types, increasing with lowering temperatures compared to the uninfected control (37°C). As salt concentration was increased, cell infection efficiency was lowered with some exceptions; the infection efficiency of M1 strain in A549 cells with 0.6 M NaCl was 50 fold higher (p ≤ 0.03). Significantly increased production of IL-6 and IL-8 was observed in both cell lines infected with GAS and when grown under different environmental conditions compared to uninfected cell lines. This study determined the prevalence of different M types in North India and showed that environmental conditions can regulate cell infection by GAS . This information may influence the selection of GAS serotypes used in vaccine development.
    The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 03/2014; 8(3):271-81. DOI:10.3855/jidc.2874 · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS) is an etiological agent for pharyngitis, pyoderma, and invasive infections in humans. Pharyngitis and pyoderma may lead to serious immune sequelae such as rheumatic heart disease and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). Streptococcal Inhibitor of Complement (SIC) and its orthologue, distantly related to SIC (DRS), are virulence factors expressed by only four of more than 100 M types of GAS. These four types (M1, M57, M12 and M55) are among the M types, which are associated with PSGN. In several populations PSGN has been shown to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Previous studies showed SIC or DRS antibody-prevalence was associated with PSGN, and seroprevalence of SIC antibodies is significantly high among CKD and ESRD patients in Mumbai. Streptococcal isolates recovered from GAS pyoderma cases were typed. Seropositivity for SIC and DRS antibodies in subjects with pyoderma, PSGN pediatric cases, age matched healthy controls and non-GAS pyoderma cases were determined. We confirm in this study an association between seroprevalence to SIC and DRS antibodies, and PSGN in Mumbai population despite low point prevalence of M1, M12, M55 and M57. In addition we extended the study to GAS-pyoderma and non-GAS pyoderma cases. To our surprise, we found a positive association between the seroprevalence to SIC and DRS antibodies, and GAS-pyoderma owing to infection with diverse M types. The mechanism of increased predisposition to pyoderma owing to infection by diverse GAS among SIC or DRS antibody-positive population is not clear. Nonetheless, our findings could be explained by a phenomenon akin to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). This is the first report showing a small number of GAS M types conferring predisposition to pyoderma by diverse types. Implications of this ADE-like phenomenon are discussed in the light of evolutionary advantage to GAS, vaccine design and control of renal diseases.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 12/2015; 15(1):857. DOI:10.1186/s12879-015-0857-4 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) type emm1 is widely associated with streptococcal invasive disease. This type is prevalent worldwide but is rare in India. Instead, emm1-2 type which is closely related to emm1 but is a distinct type is more prevalent. Although emm1 has been well characterized, information available on emm1-2 is rare. In this study we present a comparative study of both types. DNA microarray analysis showed segregation of emm1 and emm1-2 isolates into two distinct clusters. Out of 229 arrayed genes, 83-87% were present, 6-9% absent and 4-8% genes were ambiguous in emm1 isolates. emm1-2 strains harbored only 68-77%, 11-13% were absent and 10-20% ambiguous genes. Fourteen genes, present in all emm1, were completely absent in the emm1-2 isolates. sfb1 is a gene which encodes for Streptococcal fibronectin binding adhesin and invasin which has restricted distribution among different emm types of GAS. A variant of sfb1 (sfb1-2) was the only gene which was present in all emm1-2 isolates, but absent from all emm1 strains. Sfb1 and Sfb1-2 differ in sequences in the aromatic domain and the proline rich repeat region, whereas the fibronectin binding region was conserved and exhibited similar fibronectin binding activity. The presence of Sfb1-2 in emm1-2 strains was concomitant with significantly higher fibronectin-binding and invasion efficiency of HEp-2 cells when compared to emm1 isolates. The role of Sfb1-2 in invasion was confirmed by latex bead assay. emm1-2 isolates follow membrane ruffling mechanism during invasion and intracellularly follow classical endocytic pathway. Further studies are required to understand the correlation between the presence of emm1-2 isolates and the disease pattern in North India.
    International Journal of Medical Microbiology 07/2014; 304(5-6). DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.04.011 · 3.42 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Download
1 Download
Available from