Variables that moderate the attitude–behavior relation: Results of a longitudinal survey.
ABSTRACT Hypothesized several factors that moderate the attitude–behavior relation: (a) the behavioral sequence that must be successfully completed prior to the occurrence of the behavior, (b) the time interval between the measurement of attitudes and behavior, (c) attitude change, (d) the respondent's educational level, and (e) the degree of correspondence between attitudinal and behavioral variables. The behaviors investigated were having a child and using oral contraceptives. A stratified random sample of 244 married women in a midwestern urban area was studied during a 3-wave, 2-yr longitudinal study. Selection of attitudinal and belief measures was guided by the M. Fishbein (1967) model of behavior intentions. Consistent with the hypotheses, the relations between behavior and both intention and the model's attitudinal and normative components were substantially attenuated by (a) events in the behavioral sequence not under the volitional control of the actor, (b) an increase in the time interval between the measurement of attitudes and behavior from 1 to 2 yrs, and (c) changes in the model's attitudinal and normative components during the 1st yr. The respondent's educational level did not affect attitude–behavior consistency. The attitude–behavior correlation increased significantly as the degree of correspondence between the 2 variables increased. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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ABSTRACT: In two studies conducted during the 2012 U.S. presidential election, we sought to determine whether the relative ascription of the American identity to Barack Obama and Mitt Romney was distinct from attitudinal responses and from associations about racial categories. We also tested the degree to which these associations accounted for voter support. In both studies, participants completed a series of Implicit Association Tests and reported their intention to vote for and their willingness to support these candidates. In contrast to implicit associations about racial categories (Black vs. White), Obama was implicitly seen as more American and elicited a more favorable implicit evaluation than Romney (Study 1). At the same time, these effects were reduced when candidates were categorized based on their racial (rather than personal) identity (Study 2). Implicit associations about the candidates (but not racial categories) accounted for intention to vote for them and relative willingness to support them over and above the effect of political orientation (Studies 1 & 2). These findings suggest that the implicit ascription of a national identity is an important facet of presidential elections.Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 01/2013; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Labels are firmly rejected by the disability rights movement, yet the complex effects of labeling on lay beliefs are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of labeling on the general public's reactions to people with intellectual disabilities. A sample of 1,233 adult members of the UK general population were randomly presented with either a diagnostically labeled or unlabeled case vignette, and their emotional reactions, causal beliefs, and social distance were assessed. Providing a label reduced social distance, increased biomedical attributions, and had a small positive direct effect on emotional reactions. Making a diagnosis of mild intellectual disability known may prevent misattribution to more stigmatizing causes and thus reduce social distance. Some undesirable effects were observed though on causal beliefs and associated emotional reactions.American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 05/2013; 118(3):211-23. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs.Archives of Sexual Behavior 01/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor