Variables that modify the attitude behavior relation: Results of a longitudinal study
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.08). 07/1979; 37(8):1364-1376. DOI: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.524
Hypothesized several factors that moderate the attitude–behavior relation: (a) the behavioral sequence that must be successfully completed prior to the occurrence of the behavior, (b) the time interval between the measurement of attitudes and behavior, (c) attitude change, (d) the respondent's educational level, and (e) the degree of correspondence between attitudinal and behavioral variables. The behaviors investigated were having a child and using oral contraceptives. A stratified random sample of 244 married women in a midwestern urban area was studied during a 3-wave, 2-yr longitudinal study. Selection of attitudinal and belief measures was guided by the M. Fishbein (1967) model of behavior intentions. Consistent with the hypotheses, the relations between behavior and both intention and the model's attitudinal and normative components were substantially attenuated by (a) events in the behavioral sequence not under the volitional control of the actor, (b) an increase in the time interval between the measurement of attitudes and behavior from 1 to 2 yrs, and (c) changes in the model's attitudinal and normative components during the 1st yr. The respondent's educational level did not affect attitude–behavior consistency. The attitude–behavior correlation increased significantly as the degree of correspondence between the 2 variables increased. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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- "For example, knowing that an individual perceives the installation of rooftop solar panels to be both desirable and feasible is likely to provide little insight as to whether they will purchase a hybrid vehicle. Thus, behavior-specific evaluations tend to provide a poor basis for making predictions about the enactment of other behaviors (Davidson and Jaccard, 1979). However, application of a means-ends analysis to the superordinate goals to which these behaviors are being directed, such as taking action to reduce CO 2 emissions, may prove more informative. "
ABSTRACT: Purpose – Multiple environmental behaviors will need to be adopted if climate change is to be addressed, yet current environmental decision-makingmodels explain the adoption of single behaviors only. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue by developing and evaluating a decision-making model that explains the co-adoption, or coaction, of multiple environmental behaviors. Design/methodology/approach – To test its cross-national utility, the model was assessed separately among online survey panel respondents from three countries: Australia (n=502), the UK (n=500), and the USA (n=501). In total, three environmental behaviors were examined: sourcing electricity from a green energy provider, purchasing green products, and public transport use. For each behavioral pair, participants were grouped according to whether they had enacted coaction (performed both behaviors), some action (performed either behavior), or no action (performed neither behavior). Findings – Irrespective of national sample and behavioral pair, those who engaged in coaction perceived greater personal benefits from reducing their CO2 emissions than those who enacted some action or no action. Moreover, perceived consumer effectiveness was typically greater among coaction participants than those in the no action group. Finally, perceived consumer effectiveness did not differ among those who had enacted coaction or some action. Originality/value – The current findings suggest that personal benefits and perceived consumer effectiveness are important motivational antecedents for the decision to engage in environmental coaction. International commercial or social marketing campaigns aimed at encouraging the adoption of multiple environmental behaviors should therefore seek to leverage these motivational factors.International Marketing Review 05/2015; 32(3/4):350-365. DOI:10.1108/IMR-09-2013-0219 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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- "Theories of the link between attitudes and behavior (e.g., Fazio, 1990) suggest that individuals may have more sex to the extent that they have more positive evaluations of the sexual relationship (Hypotheses 3) and/or the relationship as a whole (Hypothesis 4). Although we made no strong predictions , the fact that attitudes are more likely to predict behavior when the attitude and behavior are measured at the same level of specificity (Davidson & Jaccard, 1979) suggests that sexual satisfaction may better predict sexual frequency than relationship satisfaction. Additionally, perspectives on attitude formation (e.g., Olson & Fazio, 2001) suggest that having more frequent sex may lead to more positive evaluations of the sexual relationship (Hypothesis 5) and/or the relationship as a whole (Hypothesis 6). "
ABSTRACT: The current research used two 8-wave longitudinal studies spanning the first 4–5 years of 207 marriages to examine the potential bidirectional associations among marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and frequency of sex. All three variables declined over time, though the rate of decline in each variable became increasingly less steep. Controlling for these changes, own marital and sexual satisfaction were bidirectionally positively associated with one another; higher levels of marital satisfaction at one wave of assessment predicted more positive changes in sexual satisfaction from that assessment to the next and higher levels of sexual satisfaction at one wave of assessment predicted more positive changes in marital satisfaction from that assessment to the next. Likewise, own sexual satisfaction and frequency of sex were bidirectionally positively associated with one another. Additionally, partner sexual satisfaction positively predicted changes in frequency of sex and own sexual satisfaction among husbands, yet partner marital satisfaction negatively predicted changes in both frequency of sex and own sexual satisfaction. Controlling these associations, marital satisfaction did not directly predict changes in frequency of sex or vice versa. Only the association between partner sexual satisfaction and changes in own sexual satisfaction varied across men and women and none of the key effects varied across the studies. These findings suggest that sexual and relationship satisfaction are intricately intertwined and thus that interventions to treat and prevent marital distress may benefit by targeting the sexual relationship and interventions to treat and prevent sexual distress in marriage may benefit by targeting the marital relationship.Archives of Sexual Behavior 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10508-014-0444-6 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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- "The findings clearly suggest that implicit associations toward the political candidates (as opposed to the candidates' respective racial categories) are the most potent predictors of voting intention and willingness to support the candidates. This could easily be explained based on a principle of measurement compatibility (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977; Davidson & Jaccard, 1979), but it is worth stressing that implicit associations about racial categories do not reliably predict behavioral responses, even when considered in isolation. This fails to replicate research conducted by Greenwald et al. (2009) or Payne et al. (2010). "
ABSTRACT: In two studies conducted during the 2012 U.S. presidential election, we sought to determine whether the relative ascription of the American identity to Barack Obama and Mitt Romney was distinct from attitudinal responses and from associations about racial categories. We also tested the degree to which these associations accounted for voter support. In both studies, participants completed a series of Implicit Association Tests and reported their intention to vote for and their willingness to support these candidates. In contrast to implicit associations about racial categories (Black vs. White), Obama was implicitly seen as more American and elicited a more favorable implicit evaluation than Romney (Study 1). At the same time, these effects were reduced when candidates were categorized based on their racial (rather than personal) identity (Study 2). Implicit associations about the candidates (but not racial categories) accounted for intention to vote for them and relative willingness to support them over and above the effect of political orientation (Studies 1 & 2). These findings suggest that the implicit ascription of a national identity is an important facet of presidential elections.Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 12/2014; 14:22-45. DOI:10.1111/asap.12025 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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