The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview.
ABSTRACT The history of research on childhood socialization in the context of the family is traced through the present century. The 2 major early theories (behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory) are described. These theories declined in mid-century, under the impact of failures to find empirical support. Simple reinforcement theory was seriously weakened by work on developmental psycholinguistics, attachment, modeling, and altruism. The field turned to more domain-specific mini-theories. The advent of microanalytic analyses of parent–child interaction focused attention on bidirectional processes. Views about the nature of identification and its role in socialization underwent profound change. The role of "parent as teacher" was reconceptualized (with strong influence from Vygotskian thinking). There has been increasing emphasis on the role of emotions and mutual cognitions in establishing the meaning of parent–child exchanges. The enormous asymmetry in power and competence between adults and children implies that the parent–child relationship must have a unique role in childhood socialization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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ABSTRACT: This study focus on the period of adolescence is research that of subject in religion teaching benefitable from the social learning theory. Method of literature review was used in the research, and was dealt with possibilities and limits of practicability of social learning theory on the religion teaching. According to the results, in the period of adolescence in which individuals showed a significant spiritual and physical improvement, it is found out that religious behaviors, which are desired to be developed by the religion and society, can be acquired through social learning. Based on the thesis that religion is also socially learned, it is found that the role of the adolescents’ observing his society and taking people as a role-model will be effective in adolescents’ acquiring the religious identity. Adolescences, through following religious values and norms, integrate into their society and internalize the religious values, which is a necessity for continuation of the society. As a results, since religious religion have realized as modeling and observation in the period of adolescence, to be realized of religion teaching as take into consideration adolescencents’ social developments have influence on the continuity and persistency of religious attitudes and behaviours. Key Words: Religion teaching, observation, modelling, social learning, socialization. ÖZET Ergenlik dönemi üzerine yoğunlaşan bu çalışma, din öğretiminde sosyal öğrenme kuramından yararlanabilme konusu üzerine teorik bir araştırmadır. Kaynak tarama yöntemi kullanılarak yapılan bu araştırmada din öğretimine sosyal öğrenme kuramının uygulanabilirliğinin imkânları ve sınırları ele alınmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre bireyin ruhî ve fizikî açıdan önemli bir gelişim gösterdiği ergenlik döneminde, dinin ve toplumun kazandırmak istediği tutum ve davranışların sosyal öğrenme aracılığıyla kazandırılabileceği anlaşılmaktadır. Dinin sosyal olarak da öğrenildiği tezinden hareket edilerek, ergenin dinî kimlik kazanmasında çevresindeki rol-modellerin davranışlarını gözlemlemesinin ve model almasının etkili olduğu bilinmektedir. Ergenin toplumun ortaya koyduğu dinî değer ve normlara uygun hareket etmesiyle topluma uyum sağladığı, dinî değerleri benliğinin bir parçası haline getirmesinin toplumda varlığını sürdürebilmesi için gerekli olduğu ortaya çıkmaktadır. Sonuç olarak ergenlikte din öğrenimi model alma ve gözlem yoluyla gerçekleştiğinden söz konusu öğretimin ergenlerin sosyal gelişimi göz önünde bulundurularak gerçekleştirilmesi, dinî tutum ve davranışın kalıcı ve sürekli olmasında etkili olur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Din öğretimi, gözlem, model alma, sosyal öğrenme, toplumsallaşma.
Article: A Parenting Competency Model[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SYNOPSIS Decades of research show a significant link between parenting quality and outcomes in children. Whereas many professional caregiving groups are developing competency models for training and evaluation purposes, formation of a parenting competency model has been hindered by a lack of universally accepted standards for and the complexity of parental functioning. This article advances a consensus on the dimensions of effective childrearing and assembles a model of parenting competency based on empirically supported beneficial parenting practices and attributes from multiple psychological and health disciplines. Formed using existing professional competency development guidelines, and based on an interactive, cross-disciplinary, contextual conceptualization of competent parenting, the proposed model consists of three foundational and five functional core competencies of parenting along with subcompetencies which operationalize them. Recognizing that different levels of competency exist, preliminary benchmarks for adequate and preferred function within competency areas are also offered along with behavioral anchor examples. The model's design allows for integration of cultural and contextual variables that impact child outcomes. The proposed multi-level, cross-disciplinary, contextual model may begin a discussion of what comprehensive competent parenting comprises. The proposed model's integrated structure may also serve as a framework for continued refinement of elements of competent parenting, and how they interact and are affected by context and culture, as well as facilitating targeted and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic interventions.Parenting 05/2014; 14(2):92-120. DOI:10.1080/15295192.2014.914361 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n = 2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS's association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression, and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty.AIDS Care 08/2013; 26(3). DOI:10.1080/09540121.2013.825368 · 1.60 Impact Factor