The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview.
ABSTRACT The history of research on childhood socialization in the context of the family is traced through the present century. The 2 major early theories (behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory) are described. These theories declined in mid-century, under the impact of failures to find empirical support. Simple reinforcement theory was seriously weakened by work on developmental psycholinguistics, attachment, modeling, and altruism. The field turned to more domain-specific mini-theories. The advent of microanalytic analyses of parent–child interaction focused attention on bidirectional processes. Views about the nature of identification and its role in socialization underwent profound change. The role of "parent as teacher" was reconceptualized (with strong influence from Vygotskian thinking). There has been increasing emphasis on the role of emotions and mutual cognitions in establishing the meaning of parent–child exchanges. The enormous asymmetry in power and competence between adults and children implies that the parent–child relationship must have a unique role in childhood socialization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
- SourceAvailable from: Geneviève A MageauPsychologie Québec. 11/2013; 30(6):35-39.
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ABSTRACT: During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was report for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in recent years, few have demonstrated solid development methods. Substantial variation in items across different scales/constructs makes comparison between instruments extremely difficult. Future efforts should be directed toward consensus development of food parenting practices constructs and measures.International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 05/2013; 10(1):61. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review integrates findings from studies formally testing moderators of parenting interventions targeting child conduct problems from ages 1 to 10 with a focus on baseline child problem behavior, sociodemographic risks, and family process risks as moderators. The review examines whether differential effectiveness has been found for individuals at higher versus lower risk across the body of moderator studies of parenting interventions. We conclude that greater problematic child behavior at baseline may, in some cases, be associated with greater benefit from parenting interventions. None of these studies reviewed found reduced effects for those with higher baseline child problem behavior. With regard to sociodemographic and family process risks as moderators, findings are less consistent; however, on the whole, the collection of studies suggests equal effectiveness across levels of risk, with reduced effects for those at higher risk rarely demonstrated. Implications of these conclusions for future research and intervention efforts are discussed.Child Psychiatry and Human Development 01/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor