The Role of Parents in the Socialization of Children: An Historical Overview

Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 10/1992; 28(6):1006-1017. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.28.6.1006


The history of research on childhood socialization in the context of the family is traced through the present century. The 2 major early theories (behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory) are described. These theories declined in mid-century, under the impact of failures to find empirical support. Simple reinforcement theory was seriously weakened by work on developmental psycholinguistics, attachment, modeling, and altruism. The field turned to more domain-specific mini-theories. The advent of microanalytic analyses of parent–child interaction focused attention on bidirectional processes. Views about the nature of identification and its role in socialization underwent profound change. The role of "parent as teacher" was reconceptualized (with strong influence from Vygotskian thinking). There has been increasing emphasis on the role of emotions and mutual cognitions in establishing the meaning of parent–child exchanges. The enormous asymmetry in power and competence between adults and children implies that the parent–child relationship must have a unique role in childhood socialization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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    • "Therefore, this factor is considered a foundation for every dimension of students' development as well as an influent element affecting students' learning outcomes and thinking skills, which showed the individual differences (Jackson, 2003; Wade, 2004; Campbell and Gilmore, 2007). Regarding the previous studies, the results show that there are two major factors of the family characteristic; 1) Democratic parenting style; Dmo refers to the method used by parents to take care of their children informally, but remain the rules with reasonably and democratically acceptances (Baumrind, 1966; Maccoby, 1992; Steinberg, 2001)., 2) parental support; Sup refers to the assistance, support, encouragement, and conveniences provided to children to live and learn including the learning environment to enhance students to gain new experiences and develop more advance skills (Ghate et al., 2000; Patricia et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of 166 primary empirical studies. The research results assert the theories and bring conceptual and empirical clarity to the factors affecting HOTS of students and also give readers an understanding of the magnitude and significance of relationships among the variables in the model. MASEM results confirm that classroom environment, psychological and intellectual characteristics of students have direct effects on HOTS (96.8% explained variance). Whereas, the family characteristic had insignificant effects on HOTS but they had indirect effects on HOTS through psychological characteristic. Furthermore, we show that the most direct effects on HOTS were psychological characteristic, classroom environment and intellectual characteristic, respectively. This study provided a holistic view on the relationship of factors affecting HOTS and proposed a direction for future research and practice.
    Educational Research and Reviews 10/2015; 10:2639-2652. DOI:10.5897/ERR2015.
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    • "Social learning theory and other socialization perspectives suggest that parents are influential on their children's attitudes and behaviors (Arnett, 2000; Bandura & Walters, 1963; Maccoby, 1992; Ream & Savin-Williams, 2005). Indeed, across broad and substantive domains, the influence of parental values appears to extend well into adulthood. "
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of perceived parental sexual values, religiosity, and family environment on young adults' sexual values from the United States (n = 218), Spain (n = 240), Costa Rica (n = 172), and Peru (n = 105). On average, and across the four national groups, the messages young adults received from their parents about broad domains of sexual behaviors (masturbation, non-intercourse types of heterosexual sexual activity, premarital sex, same-sex activity, and cohabiting) were unequivocally restrictive. By contrast, across the four groups, young adults on average held rather permissive sexual values and their values differed significantly from those of their parents. Moreover, the nature of perceived parental sexual values (restrictive vs. permissive) was not associated significantly with young adults' sexual values, age of sexual debut, or number of sexual partners. Comparatively, Spanish young adults held the most permissive sexual values, whereas US young adults held the most restrictive sexual values. Religiosity was the strongest predictor of young adults' sexual values, followed by perceived parental sexual values and influence. In conclusion, it appears that despite having perceived restrictive parental messages about sex, these young adults currently hold permissive sexual attitudes, thus calling into question the influence parents actually have on their adult children's sexual values.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10508-015-0570-9 · 3.53 Impact Factor
    • "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / c h i l d y o u t h their development of compliance and subsequent internalization (Emde, Biringen, Clyman, & Oppenheim, 1991; Kochanska & Aksan, 2006; Maccoby, 1992). Albeit very limited, there is evidence that maltreatment results in maladaptive responses to these compromised child–caregiver interactions that affect children's compliance and internalization (Koenig, Cicchetti, & Rogosch, 2000; Trickett & Kuczynski, 1986). "
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    ABSTRACT: Child compliance and internalization are socio-cognitive developmental processes which are critical for children’s social outcomes in multiple arenas. These developmental processes are found to be compromised in maltreated children. The current study was designed to add to the extremely limited literature on compliance and internalization in maltreated children in foster care. Compliance and internalization tasks were administered to preschool foster children, videotaped and later coded. Through parent-report questionnaires completed by the foster parents and observations of the foster home, the relation of compliance/internalization to child behavior problems, foster care experiences, and the foster home environment was examined. Findings revealed that most children showed committed compliance, but over 50% of children exhibited “deviation” behaviors in the internalization task. HOME acceptance scores (via observation of parent and child in home setting) significantly contributed to children’s compliance levels but did not significantly contribute to their internalization. Internalization was related to children’s externalizing behavior problems. These findings are considered in the context of future research and practice with respect to young children in foster care.
    Children and Youth Services Review 05/2015; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.04.013 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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