The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview.
ABSTRACT The history of research on childhood socialization in the context of the family is traced through the present century. The 2 major early theories (behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory) are described. These theories declined in mid-century, under the impact of failures to find empirical support. Simple reinforcement theory was seriously weakened by work on developmental psycholinguistics, attachment, modeling, and altruism. The field turned to more domain-specific mini-theories. The advent of microanalytic analyses of parent–child interaction focused attention on bidirectional processes. Views about the nature of identification and its role in socialization underwent profound change. The role of "parent as teacher" was reconceptualized (with strong influence from Vygotskian thinking). There has been increasing emphasis on the role of emotions and mutual cognitions in establishing the meaning of parent–child exchanges. The enormous asymmetry in power and competence between adults and children implies that the parent–child relationship must have a unique role in childhood socialization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the extent to which young adults' reports of—and desires for—maternal and paternal involvement differed between intact and divorced families. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,376 young adults completed measures of reported and desired mothering and fathering across 20 parenting domains. Results indicated that both reports of and desires for father involvement differed sharply by family form (intact versus divorced), whereas few family form differences emerged for reported or desired mother involvement. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for custody and access decisions within the family court system.Family Court Review 07/2009; 47(3).
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the cross-cultural effectiveness of a psychoeducational program with 82 Mexican and 63 American mothers with very young children. The 10-hour program was presented by trained facilitators in Mexico and the United States to small groups of mothers. Results showed that the both groups of mothers significantly increased their expectations and use of nurturing strategies and reduced their use of verbal and corporal punishment with their young children following the program. In addition, the reported frequency of child behavior problems decreased significantly at post-test. The similar results obtained across cultures were explained based on research finding similar parenting practices with young children between Mexican and American parents.Early Child Development and Care 01/2000; 163(1).
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of mother's perfectionism and parenting beliefs on her preschooler's social competence. The participants were 277 mothers residing in Daejeon, Korea. Basic descriptive statistics, Cronbach's , t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression were used for statistical treatment. The results were as follows: First, a mother's perfectionism and parenting beliefs did not differ according to her educational level. One factor of perfectionism, 'holding high standards', alone showed significant difference between highschool graduates and graduate school graduates, the latter's scores being higher than the former's. There were no significant differences in preschooler's social competence by sex or age. However, a few sex and age differences were found in sub-factors of social competence. Girls scored higher than boys on 'showing affection', and 5 year olds scored lower on 'showing affection' and higher on 'leadership' than 3 years olds. Second, a mother's perfectionism and parenting beliefs were able to explain 22.8% of variance in preschooler's social competence, the former showing more predictive power than the latter. Each of the two factors of maternal perfectionism affected five factors of preschooler's social competence in a different manner. 'Holding high standards' of perfectionism positively influenced preschooler's social competence factors such as 'social capability', 'leadership', and 'showing affection', whereas maternal 'fear of failure' had a negative impact on 'showing affection', 'disturbing'(reversed), and 'instability'(reversed). These results were discussed in relation with changes in social atmosphere and value systems, changes in child-rearing behaviors, or the construct and concept of perfectionism itself, It was suggested that these results be utilized in developing parent education programs for preschoolers lacking social competence.Journal of Korean Child Care and Education. 01/2014; 10(1).