The Role of Parents in the Socialization of Children: An Historical Overview
ABSTRACT The history of research on childhood socialization in the context of the family is traced through the present century. The 2 major early theories (behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory) are described. These theories declined in mid-century, under the impact of failures to find empirical support. Simple reinforcement theory was seriously weakened by work on developmental psycholinguistics, attachment, modeling, and altruism. The field turned to more domain-specific mini-theories. The advent of microanalytic analyses of parent–child interaction focused attention on bidirectional processes. Views about the nature of identification and its role in socialization underwent profound change. The role of "parent as teacher" was reconceptualized (with strong influence from Vygotskian thinking). There has been increasing emphasis on the role of emotions and mutual cognitions in establishing the meaning of parent–child exchanges. The enormous asymmetry in power and competence between adults and children implies that the parent–child relationship must have a unique role in childhood socialization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
- SourceAvailable from: Vanessa Smith-Castro
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- "Social learning theory and other socialization perspectives suggest that parents are influential on their children's attitudes and behaviors (Arnett, 2000; Bandura & Walters, 1963; Maccoby, 1992; Ream & Savin-Williams, 2005). Indeed, across broad and substantive domains, the influence of parental values appears to extend well into adulthood. "
ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of perceived parental sexual values, religiosity, and family environment on young adults' sexual values from the United States (n = 218), Spain (n = 240), Costa Rica (n = 172), and Peru (n = 105). On average, and across the four national groups, the messages young adults received from their parents about broad domains of sexual behaviors (masturbation, non-intercourse types of heterosexual sexual activity, premarital sex, same-sex activity, and cohabiting) were unequivocally restrictive. By contrast, across the four groups, young adults on average held rather permissive sexual values and their values differed significantly from those of their parents. Moreover, the nature of perceived parental sexual values (restrictive vs. permissive) was not associated significantly with young adults' sexual values, age of sexual debut, or number of sexual partners. Comparatively, Spanish young adults held the most permissive sexual values, whereas US young adults held the most restrictive sexual values. Religiosity was the strongest predictor of young adults' sexual values, followed by perceived parental sexual values and influence. In conclusion, it appears that despite having perceived restrictive parental messages about sex, these young adults currently hold permissive sexual attitudes, thus calling into question the influence parents actually have on their adult children's sexual values.Archives of Sexual Behavior 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10508-015-0570-9 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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- "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / c h i l d y o u t h their development of compliance and subsequent internalization (Emde, Biringen, Clyman, & Oppenheim, 1991; Kochanska & Aksan, 2006; Maccoby, 1992). Albeit very limited, there is evidence that maltreatment results in maladaptive responses to these compromised child–caregiver interactions that affect children's compliance and internalization (Koenig, Cicchetti, & Rogosch, 2000; Trickett & Kuczynski, 1986). "
ABSTRACT: Child compliance and internalization are socio-cognitive developmental processes which are critical for children’s social outcomes in multiple arenas. These developmental processes are found to be compromised in maltreated children. The current study was designed to add to the extremely limited literature on compliance and internalization in maltreated children in foster care. Compliance and internalization tasks were administered to preschool foster children, videotaped and later coded. Through parent-report questionnaires completed by the foster parents and observations of the foster home, the relation of compliance/internalization to child behavior problems, foster care experiences, and the foster home environment was examined. Findings revealed that most children showed committed compliance, but over 50% of children exhibited “deviation” behaviors in the internalization task. HOME acceptance scores (via observation of parent and child in home setting) significantly contributed to children’s compliance levels but did not significantly contribute to their internalization. Internalization was related to children’s externalizing behavior problems. These findings are considered in the context of future research and practice with respect to young children in foster care.Children and Youth Services Review 05/2015; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.04.013 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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- "Diğer bireylerle ilişki kurma sonucu tatmin edilen bağlanma güdüsü, mutlu bir yaşam için gereklidir (Bauman, 1998). Ayrıca diğer insanlara güven duyabilmek ve iyi ilişkiler kurabilmek için sağlıklı bir bağlanmanın gerçekleşmesi gerekir (Maccoby, 1992). Bir işi başardığında yaşadığı his olan başarı güdüsü ise bir davranışın tekrar yapılmasına teşvik eder. "
ABSTRACT: This study focus on the period of adolescence is research that of subject in religion teaching benefitable from the social learning theory. Method of literature review was used in the research, and was dealt with possibilities and limits of practicability of social learning theory on the religion teaching. According to the results, in the period of adolescence in which individuals showed a significant spiritual and physical improvement, it is found out that religious behaviors, which are desired to be developed by the religion and society, can be acquired through social learning. Based on the thesis that religion is also socially learned, it is found that the role of the adolescents’ observing his society and taking people as a role-model will be effective in adolescents’ acquiring the religious identity. Adolescences, through following religious values and norms, integrate into their society and internalize the religious values, which is a necessity for continuation of the society. As a results, since religious religion have realized as modeling and observation in the period of adolescence, to be realized of religion teaching as take into consideration adolescencents’ social developments have influence on the continuity and persistency of religious attitudes and behaviours. Key Words: Religion teaching, observation, modelling, social learning, socialization. ÖZET Ergenlik dönemi üzerine yoğunlaşan bu çalışma, din öğretiminde sosyal öğrenme kuramından yararlanabilme konusu üzerine teorik bir araştırmadır. Kaynak tarama yöntemi kullanılarak yapılan bu araştırmada din öğretimine sosyal öğrenme kuramının uygulanabilirliğinin imkânları ve sınırları ele alınmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre bireyin ruhî ve fizikî açıdan önemli bir gelişim gösterdiği ergenlik döneminde, dinin ve toplumun kazandırmak istediği tutum ve davranışların sosyal öğrenme aracılığıyla kazandırılabileceği anlaşılmaktadır. Dinin sosyal olarak da öğrenildiği tezinden hareket edilerek, ergenin dinî kimlik kazanmasında çevresindeki rol-modellerin davranışlarını gözlemlemesinin ve model almasının etkili olduğu bilinmektedir. Ergenin toplumun ortaya koyduğu dinî değer ve normlara uygun hareket etmesiyle topluma uyum sağladığı, dinî değerleri benliğinin bir parçası haline getirmesinin toplumda varlığını sürdürebilmesi için gerekli olduğu ortaya çıkmaktadır. Sonuç olarak ergenlikte din öğrenimi model alma ve gözlem yoluyla gerçekleştiğinden söz konusu öğretimin ergenlerin sosyal gelişimi göz önünde bulundurularak gerçekleştirilmesi, dinî tutum ve davranışın kalıcı ve sürekli olmasında etkili olur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Din öğretimi, gözlem, model alma, sosyal öğrenme, toplumsallaşma.