Trends in illness severity and length of stay in inner-city adolescents hospitalized for pelvic inflammatory disease.
ABSTRACT In 1998, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) changed their guidelines for treatment of adolescents with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), no longer recommending hospitalization of all teenagers.
(1) To determine the proportion of adolescents with PID who were admitted for failed outpatient treatment after the CDC guideline change. (2) To determine if adolescents admitted for PID after the guideline change needed longer hospital stays and/or were more likely to be "very ill" [as measured by inflammation markers, e.g. fever] or to have tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) than those admitted before the change.
Retrospective chart review
All 12-21-year-old females with the diagnosis of PID admitted to an adolescent inpatient unit in an inner-city teaching hospital during a two-year period before [T1=1995-1997 (54 cases)] and after [T2=1998-2000 (91 cases)] the CDC guideline change.
Reason for admission (failed outpatient treatment; TOA; or admission at the time of diagnosis of PID); clinical toxicity at admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS).
During T2, 22% of PID admissions were for failure of outpatient therapy. However, those admitted after failure of outpatient therapy (n=20) in T2 were less likely to be "very ill" than those who were admitted at the time of PID diagnosis in either T1 or T2 (n=123) [RR:0.30; 95% CI:0.09-0.94]. Mean LOS for females admitted to the adolescent unit with all diagnoses other than PID did not change between T1 and T2 but mean LOS for those diagnosed with PID decreased significantly from 6.3 +/- 3.7 days to 4.7 +/- 2.7 days, respectively (P = 0.002). LOS for PID was longer for younger (<16 years; 8.20 +/- 4.5 days) than older (> or =16 years; 5.0 +/- 2.8 days) girls (P = 0.02) and for adolescents with TOA (7.9 +/- 5.0 days) than for those without (5.3 +/- 2.9 days) (P = 0.05).
At our medical center, after the CDC guideline change many adolescents with PID were admitted because of failure of outpatient therapy but they were not sicker than those admitted at the time of diagnosis and overall LOS for PID was shorter. These findings are reassuring because they suggest that an initial trial of outpatient therapy for PID is unlikely to harm adolescents and may lead to significant cost savings.
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ABSTRACT: Ultrasonography of the pelvis is commonly used to diagnose tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Our objective was to determine whether the clinical features of PID differ in adolescents with and without TOA. A retrospective design was used to derive and validate a clinical model differentiating adolescents with PID who did and did not have TOA. The study population consisted of hospitalized adolescents with a discharge diagnosis of PID. Of the 208 patients discharged from January 1, 1990, to July 31, 1993, 87 (42%) met published criteria for PID and comprised the derivation set. Of the 63 patients from August 1, 1993, to June 24, 1994, 30 (48%) met criteria and comprised the validation set. All patients had pelvic ultrasonography performed during hospitalization. The ultrasonography records were reviewed retrospectively for TOA, ovarian and uterine size, clarity of tissue planes, and endometrial or cul-de-sac fluid. Medical records were reviewed for sociodemographic characteristics, medical and sexual history, physical examination, laboratory results, and hospital course. TOA was present in 17% of the derivation set and 20% of the validation set. A six-variable model developed on the derivation set performed best in differentiating the TOA and non-TOA groups: last menstrual period > 18 days prior to admission (60% and 17%), previous PID (53% and 22%), palpable adnexal mass (13% and 3%), white blood cell count > or = 10,500/microliters (33% and 64%), erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 15 mm/h (33% and 64%), and heart rate > 90/min (40% and 78%). In the derivation and validation sets, the model correctly identified 78 and 83% of the TOA groups and 88 and 77% of the non-TOA groups. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the model was 0.92 in the derivation set and 0.87 in the validation set. We conclude that clinical characteristics help identify adolescents with acute PID who have TOA. These patients may have fewer signs of acute illness than those without TOA and may develop symptoms later in the menstrual cycle.Journal of Adolescent Health 07/1996; 18(6):397-403. DOI:10.1016/1054-139X(96)00020-1 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To identify factors associated with subsequent sexually transmitted infection (STI) (within 1 year of initial infection) due to Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis. Prospective cohort study. A sexually transmitted diseases clinic and four community-based primary care clinics for adolescents. Female patients (ages 15 to 19 years) with initial diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomonas. Subsequent infection by chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomonas. More than 40% of subjects were subsequently infected by at least one STI. Reinfection was common, but infections with sexually transmitted organisms other than the initial infecting organism were also common. Predictors of subsequent infection were black race, gonorrhea as the initial infection, two or more sex partners in the previous 3 months, and inconsistent condom use. Subsequent STI frequently follow an initial STI, but there is substantial variation in the causal organism. These data suggest the importance of comprehensive STI prevention programs for adolescents rather than organism-specific interventions.Sex Transm Dis 02/1999; 26(1):26-32. DOI:10.1097/00007435-199901000-00005 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individuals who repeatedly acquire sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may facilitate the persistence of disease at endemic levels. Identifying those most likely to become reinfected with an STI would help in the development of targeted interventions. To investigate the demographic and behavior characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients most likely to reattend with an STI. The proportion of patients attending three STD clinics in England between 1994 and 1998 who reattended for treatment of acute STI within 1 year was estimated from Kaplan-Meier failure curves. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to investigate the relation between rate of reattendance with an acute STI and patient characteristics. Of the 17,466 patients presenting at an STD clinic with an acute STI, 14% reattended for treatment of an STI within 1 year. Important determinants of reinfection were age, sexual orientation, and ethnicity: 20% of 12- to 15-year-old females (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.90; CI, 1.13-3.18, compared with 20- to 24-year-old females), 22% of homosexual men (adjusted HR, 1.30; CI, 1.07-1.58, compared with heterosexual men), and 25% of black Caribbean attendees (adjusted HR, 1.87; CI, 1.63-2.13, compared with whites) reattended for treatment of acute STI within 1 year. In addition, 21% of those with a history of STI (adjusted HR, 1.42; CI, 1.28-1.59, compared with those with no history of STI) and 17% of individuals reporting three or more partners in the recent past (adjusted HR, 1.53; CI, 1.34-1.73, compared with those with one partner) reattended for treatment of an acute STI within 1 year. In this STD clinic population, teenage females, homosexual men, black Caribbean attendees, individuals with a history of STI, and those reporting high rates of sexual partner change repeatedly re-presented with acute STIs. Directing enhanced STD clinic-based interventions at these groups may be an effective strategy for STI control.Sex Transm Dis 08/2001; 28(7):379-86. · 2.75 Impact Factor